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Finding and slzmg cracks and other crack-like discontinuities has been the center of attention for scientists and engineers developing and using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology. However, with advanced mate- rials being "engineered" and used in critical structural components, a new for NDE has emerged. Whereas many traditional engineering materi- challenge als fail due to the initiation and self-similar propagation of a crack, reinforced composite materials degrade and fail in a manner more analogously to the collapse of a structure. Consequently the NDE of such materials involves assessing the combined effect of the material's damaged condition rather than identifying and sizing single critical imperfection. In 1979 Alex Vary, seeking to address the challenge confronting the NDE of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials began work on a new method of materials characterization. Focusing on the problem of evaluating graphite fiber reinforcedl epoxy laminated plates; Vary used a piezoelectric transducer to excite a mechanical disturbance in a plate and, with a sensi- tive piezoelectric transducer monitored the disturbance on the same surface of the plate. (Placing the transducers on the same surface was primarily for practical purpose but their displacement in the direction of anticipated service load was of fundamental significance!) To quantify this observation, he counted the number of excursions, of the resulting electrical signal, above a arbitrary voltage threshold; a procedure frequently used for acoustic emission signal analysis.
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Table of Contents

Keynote.- The Acousto-Ultrasonic Approach.- Theory - Wave Propagation for Acousto-Ultrasound.- Interaction of Ultrasonic Waves with Layered Media.- Diffuse Waves for Materials NDE.- Low Frequency Flexural Wave Propagation in Laminated Composite Plates.- Preliminary Evaluation of Non-Contact Acousto-Ultrasonic Displacement Fields in Polymeric Matrix Composite.- Utilization of Oblique Incidence in Acousto-Ultrasonics.- Data Interpretation.- Ultrasonic Velocity Studies of Composite and Heterogeneous Materials.- Acousto-Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in Composite Laminates.- Ray Propagation Path Analysis of Acousto-Ultrasonic Signals in Composites.- Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Material Using Ultrasound.- Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of Backscattering Mechanisms in Fiber-Reinforced Composites.- Statistical Evaluation of Quality in Composites Using the Stress Wave Factor Technique.- Application of Acousto-Ultrasonics to Quality Control and Damage Assessment of Composites.- Predicting Damage Development in Composite Materials Based on Acousto-Ultrasonic Evaluation.- Sources/Detectors.- Laser Generated Ultrasound.- Electromagnetic Transducers for Generation and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves.- Applications and Advantages of Dry Coupling Ultrasonic Transducers for Materials Characterization and Inspection.- Fiber Waveguide Sensors of Stress Waves in Solids.- Calibration and Method Implementation.- Considerations for Developing Calibration Standards for Acousto-Ultrasonic Inspection.- Test Conditions in Stress Wave Factor Measurements for Fiber Reinforced Composites and Laminates.- Measurement of the Energy Content in Acousto-Ultrasonic Signals.- Applications - General.- Acousto-Ultrasonics: Applications to Wire Rope, Wood Fiber Hardboard, and Adhesion.- An Acousto-Ultrasonic Method for Evaluating Wood Products.- Acousto-Ultrasonic Characterization of Physical Properties of Human Bones.- Applications - Composite Materials.- Multi-Parameter, Multi-Frequency Acousto-Ultrasonic for Detecting Impact Damage in Composites.- Trans-Ply Crack Density Detection by Acousto-Ultrasonics.- Application of Acousto-Ultrasonics for Predicting Hygrothermal Degradation of Unidirectional Glass-Fiber Composites.- Applications - Bonding.- Bond Quality Evaluation of Bimetallic Strips: Acousto-Ultrasonic Approach.- Acousto-Ultrasonic Evaluation of the Strength of Composite Material Adhesive Joints.

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