1. Introducing critical participatory action research Why we wrote this book The changing field of action research The things only participatory research can do An example: Recycling at Braxton High School, Canada Action research history: different kinds, foci and purposes of action research Different kinds of action research Changing foci of action research in education Different purposes of action research Critical participatory action research as a disciplined way of making change The people who typically conduct critical participatory action research An example in education Blurring boundaries: theorists and practitioners, researchers and practitioners Critical participatory action research as a practice-changing practice References 2. A new view of participation: Participation in public spheres Participation in communication Communicative action and communicative space Ten key features of public spheres: Comments for critical participatory action researchers Conclusion: `Participation' in critical participatory action research is participation in public spheres References 3. A new view of practice: Practices held in place by practice architectures Defining practice Practices and practice architectures Practices and practice architectures in critical participatory action research Critical participatory action research as a practice-changing practice References 4. A new view of research: Research within practice traditions What's critical about critical participatory action research? Research perspectives in critical participatory action research Critical participatory action research as a kind of research Researching practice from within practice traditions Using the practice architectures analysis table to find a felt concern that will be the focus of a critical participatory action research initiative References 5. Doing critical participatory action research: The `planner' part Practising critical participatory action research Critical participatory action research in education: Are our practices educational? Reconnaissance Opening communicative space - establishing a public sphere Dialogues between system and lifeworld, strategic action and communicative action Questions to identify a shared felt concern in relation to our practices and what holds our practices in place An initial statement about what you intend to do Planning Changing practices and practice architectures The product of planning - a collective rationale and plan for change Enacting the plan and observing how it works Enacting and observing: The product Reflection Reflection: The product The spiral of cycles of self-reflection References 6. Examples of critical participatory action research Example 1: The recycling project at Braxton High School, Canada Example 2: The self-directed learning project at Grace Elementary School, Canada Example 3: The graphic novel project at Joseph Junior High School, Canada Example 4: The Teacher Talk project in an Australian university Example 5: The Yirrkala Ganma education project: Critical participatory action research in an Indigenous community The concept of Ganma Ganma education and the practice of critical participatory action research ConclusionReferences 7. Resources for critical participatory action researchers Resource 1: Creating a public sphere and identifying a shared felt concern Identifying educational legitimation deficits Identifying more general legitimation deficits Resource 2: Some notes on research ethics for critical participatory action researchers General principles of research ethics: respecting persons, avoiding harm, justice and beneficence Informed consent and assent Dependent relationships Confidentiality and anonymity Mutual trust and mutual vulnerability Additional reading Resource 3: Critical participatory action research group protocols: Ethical agreements for participation in public spheres Resource 4: Principles of procedure for action researchers Resource 5: Keeping a journal Resource 6: Gathering evidence, documenting (1) Diaries, journals, logs, and blogs (2) Written records: field notes, anecdotal or running records, event sampling (3) Interviews (4) Audio and video recording, and photographs (5) Dataplay and fotonovela (6) Document analysis (7) Questionnaires and surveys (8) Interaction schedules and checklists (9) Student work samples and assessment tasks Some cautionary notes Resource 7: Reporting: For yourself and others Reporting action research undertaken as part of a course of study Resource 8: Choosing an academic partner to work with a critical participatory action research initiative References Index
Stephen Kemmis is Professor of Education and a member of the Research Institute for Professional Practice, Learning and Education at Charles Sturt University (Faculty of Education, Wagga Wagga). He is also co-leader of the `Pedagogy, Education and Praxis' (PEP) international collaboration involving researchers from universities in Europe and Canada. Stephen has held academic positions at the University of Sydney, University of Illinois, University of East Anglia, Deakin University and the University of Ballarat and also worked for several years as an independent consultant. He has published extensively on professional practice, indigenous education, participatory action research and qualitative methods in educational research. His most well-known publication is the highly acclaimed book (with Wilfred Carr) "Becoming Critical: Education, knowledge and action research". In 2001 Stephen was made an Honorary Life Member of the Australian Association for Educational Research (AARE), and in 2009 he was awarded two honorary doctorates for services to international educational research. Robin McTaggart is Adjunct Professor at the Griffith Institute for Educational Research at Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. He was formerly Professor and Head of School of Administration and Curriculum Studies at Deakin University, Geelong, Australia, and Dean of Education and Pro-Vice-Chancellor Quality Assurance at James Cook University, Townsville, Australia. He was also Adjunct Professor in the International Graduate School of Management PhD program at the University of South Australia for several years. He has practised, taught and published extensively about critical participatory action research in many countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Canada and the USA. Rhonda Nixon is an Adjunct Professor at the University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada and currently works at Edmonton Catholic Schools. She has fifteen years of experience as a former elementary, junior and secondary teacher and English Language Arts Consultant for a large urban school district. She is currently supporting schools in critical participatory action research as an approach to professional learning in her role as Manager of Edmonton Catholic Schools' TRANSFORM professional development programs. Her 2012 PhD thesis, from the University of Alberta, Investigating tension in collaborative action research about comics writing, reported on a critical participatory action research program undertaken with elementary school teachers investigating the power of comics writing as a way to teach narrative writing.