Preface. Acknowledgments. Outline of Aerospace Propulsion History. Nomenclature. 1 Fundamentals. 1.1 Fundamental Equations. 1.1.1 Review of Terms. 1.1.2 Equation of State for a Perfect Gas. 1.1.3 Law of the Conservation of Mass. 1.1.4 Law of the Conservation of Linear Momentum. 1.1.5 Law of the Conservation of Energy. 1.2 Isentropic Equations. 1.2.1 Isentropic Relationship between Temperature and Pressure. 1.2.2 Isentropic Relationships with Specific Volume. 1.3 Polytropic Processes. 1.4 Total (or Stagnation) Properties. 1.5 Isentropic Principles in Engine Components. 1.5.1 Ducts. 1.5.2 Turbomachinery. 1.5.3 Combustion Chambers (Combustors). 1.5.4 Nozzles. 1.6 Shock Waves. 1.6.1 Normal Shocks. 1.6.2 Oblique Shocks 1.6.3 Conical Shocks. 1.7 Summary. References. Problems. 2 Rockets. 2.1 Background Description. 2.2 Performance of an Ideal Rocket. 2.2.1 Rocket Thrust Equation. 2.2.2 Total and Specific Impulse. 2.2.3 Effective Exhaust Velocity. 2.2.4 Rocket Efficiencies. 2.2.5 Characteristic Velocity. 2.2.6 Thrust Coefficient. 2.3 Solid Rocket Motors. 2.3.1 Colloidal (Homogenous) Propellants. 2.3.2 Composite (Heterogeneous) Propellants. 2.3.3 Composite Modified Double-Based Propellants 2.3.4 Solid Propellant Grain Geometry. 2.3.5 Solid Rocket Motor Casing. 2.3.6 Combustion of Solid Propellants. 2.3.7 Solid Rocket Ignition Systems. 2.4 Liquid Rockets. 2.4.1 Liquid Rocket Propellants. 2.4.2 Liquid Rocket Feed Systems. 2.4.3 Liquid Rocket Injection Systems. 2.4.4 Combustion of Liquid Propellants. 2.4.5 Liquid Rocket Ignition Systems. 2.5 Hybrid Rockets. 2.6 Motor Casing. 2.7 Thrust Chamber. 2.8 Exhaust Nozzles. 2.9 Multi-staging. 2.10 Non-chemical Rockets. 2.11 Rocket Design Methodology. 2.12 Summary. References. Problems. 3 Piston Aerodynamic Engines. 3.1 Background Description. 3.2 Engine Types. 3.2.1 Rotary Engines. 3.2.2 Reciprocating Engines. 3.2.3 Supercharged Reciprocating Engines. 3.2.4 Gas Turbine Propeller Engines. 3.3 Thrust. 3.4 Combustion. 3.4.1 Aviation Fuel. 3.4.2 Specific Fuel Consumption. 3.5 Propeller Design. 3.5.1 General Description. 3.5.2 Power Efficiencies. 3.5.3 Variable Pitch Blades. 3.5.4 Propeller Shapes. 3.5.5 Contra-Rotating Propellers. 3.5.6 Helicopter Rotor Blades. 3.6 Propeller Performance. 3.7 Summary. References. Problems. 4 Gas Turbine Engines. 4.1 Background Description. 4.2 Ideal Gas Turbine Cycle. 4.3 Types of Gas Turbine Engines. 4.3.1 Jet Propulsion Engines. 4.3.2 Shaft Power Engines. 4.4 Engine Cycle Performance. 4.4.1 Jet Propulsion Thrust. 4.4.2 Shaft Power Thrust. 4.4.3 Propulsive Efficiency. 4.4.4 Thermal Efficiency. 4.4.5 Overall Efficiency. 4.4.6 Specific Fuel Consumption. 4.5 Component Performance. 4.5.1 Intakes. 4.5.2 Compressors. 4.5.3 Turbines. 4.5.4 Combustion Chambers (Combustors). 4.5.5 Exhaust Nozzles. 4.6 Engine Performance Analysis. 4.7 Design Point Optimization. 4.8 Component Design. 4.8.1 Intake Design. 4.8.2 Compressor System Design. 4.8.3 Combustion Chambers. 4.8.4 Turbines. 4.8.5 Exhaust Systems. 4.9 Engine Control Systems. 4.10 Summary. References. Problems. 5 Ramjet and Scramjet Engines. 5.1 Background Description. 5.2 Ramjet Engines. 5.2.1 Conventional Ramjet Engines. 5.2.2 Turboramjet Engines. 5.2.3 Analysis of Ramjet Engines. 5.2.4 Ramjet Component Design. 5.3 Scramjet Engines. 5.3.1 Description. 5.3.2 Scramjet Component Design. 5.4 Summary. References. Problems. Appendix A: Gas Tables. Appendix B: Isentropic Flow Tables. Appendix C: Shock Tables. Appendix D: Rocket Propellant Tables. Solutions to Even Numbered Problems. Index.
Thomas A. Ward is a Senior Lecturer of Mechanical Engineering at the Unitversiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Malaysia, where he teaches aerospace propulsion systems, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. He acts as Aero Propulsion Coordinator for the UiTM Flight Technology and Test Center and been a Senior Advisor to the Google Lunar X-Prize Malaysian team. Ward also serves as Technical Editor for UiTM International Engineering journal and referee for the Institute of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM) journal. Prior to his move to Malaysia, Ward worked as an Aerospace Engineer for the US Air Force for over 15 years, conducting integrated engineering analysis of aircraft systems including propulsion systems, aerodynamics, flight controls, structures, avionic systems, and flight dynamics. He represented the USAF on several national committees and at numerous forums and international events. International outreach included working in the United Kingdom for five years as a USAF Integrated Engineer with the Royal Air Force. Ward has conducted research on endothermic jet fuels for potential future use in hypersonic aircraft and has authored a number of propriety papers on aircraft and missile systems for the USAF. He holds a BSc in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Cincinnati, an MSc in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Dayton, an MSc in Aerospace Systems Engineering from Loughborogh University, and a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Dayton.