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Amino Acids


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Table of Contents

Discovery and Chemistry of Amino Acids
Definition and Nomenclature of AA
Discovery of AA
Chemical Properties of AA

Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and Amino Acids
Classification and Content of Protein in Diets
Definitions of Digestion and Absorption
Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Monogastric Animals
Protein Digestion and Absorption of Peptides and AA in Ruminants

Synthesis of Amino Acids
Synthesis of AA in Tissues and Cells of Animals Including Humans
General Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells
Specific Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Animal Cells
Pathways for Synthesis of AA in Microorganisms
Synthesis of D-AA in Animal Cells and Bacteria
Conversion of D-AA to l-AA in Animal Cells and Bacteria

Degradation of Amino Acids
General Characteristics of AA Degradation in Animal Cells
Pathways for Degradation of AA in Animal Cells
Catabolism of D-AA in Animal Cells
Catabolism of L-AA and D-AA in Microorganisms

Synthesis and Catabolism of Special Nitrogenous Substances from Amino Acids
Production of Dipeptides Consisting of Histidine or Its Methylated Derivatives
Synthesis and Degradation of GSH
Production of Gly-Pro-Hydroxyproline
Synthesis and Catabolism of Polyamines
Synthesis and Utilization of Creatine
Synthesis and Catabolism of L-Carnitine
Synthesis and Catabolism of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotides
Heme Synthesis and Catabolism
Synthesis and Catabolism of Histamine
Synthesis and Catabolism of Catecholamines, Thyroid Hormones, and Melanin
Synthesis and Catabolism of Serotonin and Melatonin
Synthesis and Catabolism of D-Glucosamine and Glycosaminoglycans
Conjugation Products for Excretion

Synthesis of Urea and Uric Acid
Ammonia Production and Toxicity in Animals
Urea Production in Mammals
Uric Acid Synthesis
Comparisons between Uric Acid and Urea Synthesis

Use of Isotopes for Studying Amino Acid Metabolism
Basic Concepts about Isotopes
Interpretation of Data from Isotope Experiments
Potential Pitfalls of Isotopic Studies

Protein Synthesis
Historical Perspectives of Protein Synthesis Pathway
Pathways of Protein Synthesis in the Cytoplasm and Mitochondria
Biochemical Characteristics and Significance of Protein Synthesis
Measurements of Protein Synthesis

Intracellular Protein Degradation
Historical Perspectives of Intracellular Protein Degradation
Proteases (Peptidases) for Intracellular Protein Degradation
Intracellular Proteolytic Pathways
Characteristics and Physiological Significance of Intracellular Protein Degradation
Measurements of Intracellular Protein Degradation

Regulation of Amino Acid Metabolism
Basic Concepts in Metabolism
Effects of Nutritional and Physiological Factors on AA Metabolism

Physiological Functions of Amino Acids
Roles of AA in Peptide Synthesis
Roles of AA for Synthesis of Nonpeptide Molecules
Regulatory Roles of AA in Food Intake, Nutrient Metabolism, and Gene Expression
Roles for AA in the Immune Response
Use of AA in Nutrition, Therapy, and Health
Efficacy and Safety of Dietary AA Supplementation

Inborn Errors of Amino Acid Metabolism
Inherited Diseases Resulting from Disorders of AA Metabolism
Treatment of Inborn Errors of AA Metabolism

Dietary Requirements of Amino Acids
Historical Perspectives of Dietary AA Requirements
Determination of AA Requirements
Assessment of Dietary Protein Quality


About the Author

Dr. Guoyao Wu is a university distinguished professor, university faculty fellow, and Texas A&M AgriLife Research senior faculty fellow at Texas A&M University. He has taught graduate and undergraduate courses at Texas A&M University in the past 21 years. His research focuses on the biochemistry, nutrition, and physiology of amino acids in animals at genetic, molecular, cellular, and whole-body levels. Dr. Wu is a member and elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.


"This useful volume takes a broad-based look at the metabolism of amino acids. ... easily readable, with well-presented, accurate illustrations (primarily charts and pathways). Pertinent end-of-chapter references; comprehensive index. Summing Up: Recommended. Upper-division undergraduates and above.
-B. Williams, emeritus, St. Catherine University, in CHOICE Magazine

"This book is the most comprehensive treatment of animal amino-acid metabolism and will be a valuable resource to all working in this area. It covers the history, chemistry, and the integrated physiology of the major amino acids, going far beyond their use in protein synthesis to include a full description of non-protein functions and the role of amino acids as signaling molecules."
-Dr. Malcolm Watford, Professor of Nutrition, Rutgers University

"I did find the chapter on Intracellular Protein Degradation to be good reading. I would recommend this chapter as background to anyone working in the area and trying to learn about it. I appreciated the historical context, taking the reader through the progression of the field. The background on the proteases and peptidases is particularly detailed."
-Dr. Vickie E. Baracos, Professor of Medicine, The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada

"This new volume by a leading investigator in the field of amino acids is both
comprehensive and eclectic in its coverage and is recommended to all with an
interest in these fascinating biomolecules."
-Dr. John T. Brosnan, Professor of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland Fellow, The Royal Society of Canada

"Dr. Wu's book is a highly valuable contribution to the armamentarium of knowledge in nutritional biochemistry and will be a classic textbook in the area."
-Dr. Teresa A. Davis, Professor of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine

"This is just EXACTLY what I have been looking for because it has just enough detail but is not lost in detail. The figures are very clear."
-Dr. Jeffrey L. Firkins, Professor of Nutrition, Ohio State University

"I enjoyed reading Dr. Wu's book very much. It will be very useful and practical for graduate and undergraduate students to learn amino acid biochemistry and nutrition, as well as for any scientists to fully understand the historical and current views of the arena of amino acids."
-Dr. Chien-An A. Hu, Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine

"I really enjoyed the chapter on 'Dietary Requirements of Amino Acids'! I also appreciated the section on what constitutes an 'essential' amino acid (Dr. Wu was preaching to the choir on this topic)."
James C. Matthews, Professor of Nutrition, University of Kentucky

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