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Analyzing English Grammar
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Table of Contents

Preface CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION What Is Grammar? Grammar Versus Usage Descriptive Grammars Grammatical Prototypes Learning About Grammar Aids to Learning About Language Diagramming IC Analysis Phrase Structure Trees Suggestions for Reading This Book Key Terms CHAPTER 2 VARIETIES OF ENGLISH Chapter Preview [included for each chapter] Chapter Goals [included for each chapter] Regional Dialects Social Dialects Standard American English Styles Second Language Acquisition English in an International Context Summary Key Terms [deleted endnotes] CHAPTER 3 THE MORPHOLOGY OF ENGLISH Morphemes Allomorphs Inflectional Morphemes Noun Inflections Verb Inflections Functional Shift What's the Usage? Adjective and Adverb Inflections Derivational Morphemes Form Classes and Structure Classes A Word About Words Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 4 FORM-CLASS WORDS Form and Function Forms with Overlapping Functions Nouns Prototypes and Peripheral Cases Subclasses and Features Noun Subclasses Verbs Verb Subclasses Adjectives Adjective Subclasses What's the Usage? Ajjectives Adverbs Adverb Subclasses Analyzing Form and Function Comments and Suggestions Summary Review Exercises Subclasses Key Terms CHAPTER 5 MODIFYING WORDS: PART 1 STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS Structure-Class Versus Form-Class Words Determiners Diagrams and Trees Auxiliaries Modal Auxiliaries Have Be Do Diagrams and Trees Qualifiers Diagrams and Trees What's the Usage? Qualifiers Pronouns Pronouns as Noun-Phrase Substitutes Personal Pronouns What's the Usage? Personal Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns What's the Usage? Reflexive Pronouns Reciprocal Pronouns Indefinite Pronouns What's the Usage? Indefinite Pronouns Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 6 CONNECTING WORDS PART II STRUCTURE-CLASS WORDS Prepositions Diagrams and Trees Differences Between Prepositions and Adverbs Differences Between Prepositions and Verb Particles Differences Between Verb Particles and Adverbs Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Correlative Conjunctions What's the Usage? Punctuating Sentences with Coordinating Conjunctions Conjunctive Adverbs Subordinating Conjunctions What's the Usage? Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences Relatives Interrogatives Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 7 PHRASES Subjects and Predicates Form and Function Recognizing Phrase Types The Main Verb Phrase Creating Verb Phrases Time, Tense, and Aspect Simple Tenses Finite and Nonfinite Verb Forms What's the Usage? Verb Tense and Aspect in AAVE Compound Verb Forms-Perfect and Progressive The Meaning of Modals What's the Usage? Can and May Other Auxiliaries Have and Be as Main Verbs What's the Usage? Shall and Will The Subjunctive Mood Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 8 FIVE BASIC SENTENCE TYPES Binary Structure Type I-The Intransitive Type Types II, III, and IV-Linking (Copular) Verbs Type II-The Verb Be Requiring Adverbs of Time or Place Type III-The Linking Verb Type with Adjectival Subject Complement What's the Usage? Adjectives and Adverbs Type IV-The Linking Verb Type with Nominal Subject Complement What's the Usage? It is I Versus It is me Type V-The Transitive Type Transitive Verbs with Reflexive and Reciprocal Direct Objects Transitive Verbs with Object Complements Distinguishing Between Transitive and Linking Verb Sentence Types Verbs That Function in More Than One Sentence Type What's the Usage? Comma Splices Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 9 BASIC SENTENCE TRANSFORMATIONS The Indirect Object Transformation Indirect Objects and Object Complements The Passive Transformation Direct and Indirect Objects What's the Usage? Uses and Misuses of the Passive Other Transformations Negative Sentences Negative Sentences with Auxiliary Verbs Negative Sentences with Be Negative Sentences Without Auxiliary Verbs or Be What's the Usage? Double Negatives Interrogative Sentences Yes/No Questions Wh-Questions What's the Usage? Ending a Sentence with a Preposition Imperative Sentences Verbs in Imperative Sentences Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 10 ADVERBIAL AND ADJECTIVAL CLAUSES: FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART I Sentence Varieties Subordinate Clauses Diagramming Subordinate Clauses Subordinate Clauses That Can Function Adverbially or Adjectivally Relative Clauses Relative Clauses Within Prepositional Phrases Diagramming Relative Clauses What's the Usage? Who/Whom The Omission of Relative Pronouns Relative Adverbs Relative Clauses Contrasted with Adverbial Subordinate Clauses Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Relative Clauses Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 11 NOMINAL CLAUSES: FINITE VERB CLAUSES, PART II That-Clauses Differences Between Relative Clauses and Nominal That-Clauses Appositive That-Clauses Relative Clauses and Deletion Transformations: Appositives Functions of Nominal That-Clauses Diagramming Nominal That-Clauses Interrogative Clauses Diagramming Interrogative Clauses Rhetorical Problems in Using Dependent Clauses What's the Usage? Using Dependent Clauses What's the Usage? Punctuation of Dependent Clauses What's the Usage? Dependent Clauses as Sentence Fragments Elliptical Dependent Clauses Nominal Clauses The Omission of That Summary Review Exercises Key Terms CHAPTER 12 NONFINITE VERB PHRASES Infinitive Phrases Diagramming Infinitive Phrases Passive Infinitives Infinitives Without To Functions of Infinitive Phrases Adverbial Infinitives Adjectival Infinitives Nominal Infinitives Differences Between Infinitives and Prepositional Phrases Present Participle Phrases Functions of Present Participle Phrases Diagramming Present Participle Phrases Differences Between Present Participles and Adjectives Gerunds What's the Usage? Subjects of Gerunds Functions of Gerunds and Gerund Phrases Differences Between Gerunds and Nouns Past Participle Phrases Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Participle Phrases What's the Usage? Dangling Modifiers What's the Usage? Misplaced Modifiers Summary Review Exercises Key Terms APPENDIX: THE SOUNDS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH Consonants of English Allophones Vowels of English American Pronunciation Pronunciation and Spelling Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Summary Review Exercises Key Terms Index

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