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Anatomy & Physiology for Dummies, 3rd Edition


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1 About This Book 2 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 3 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 4 Part 1: Locating Physiology on the Web of Knowledge 5 Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology: The Big Picture 7 Scientifically Speaking 7 How anatomy and physiology fit into science 8 Anatomy, gross and otherwise 10 A Little Chat about Jargon 11 Creating better communication 11 Establishing precise terminology 11 Looking at the Body from the Proper Perspective 13 Getting in position 13 Dividing the anatomy 15 Mapping out your regions 15 Casing your cavities 19 Organizing Yourself on Many Levels 21 Level I: The cellular level 23 Level II: The tissue level 23 Level III: The organ level 23 Level IV: The organ system level 23 Level V: The organism level 24 Chapter 2: What Your Body Does All Day 27 Transferring Energy: A Body's Place in the World 28 Building Up and Breaking Down: Metabolism 28 Why your cells metabolize 29 How your cells metabolize 30 Staying in Range: Homeostasis 33 Maintaining a constant temperature: Thermoregulation 34 Swimming in H2O: Fluid balance 35 Adjusting the fuel supply: Blood glucose concentration 35 Measuring important variables 36 Growing, Replacing, and Renewing 37 Growing 37 Replacing 37 Repairing parts 39 Healing wounds 39 Lasting parts 40 Chapter 3: A Bit about Cell Biology 43 The Functions of Cells 43 Building themselves 44 Building tissues 45 Transforming energy 45 Making and transporting products 45 Communicating 46 Seeing the Inside of Eukaryotic Cells 46 Containing the cell: Cell membrane 48 Controlling the cell: Nucleus 51 Cytoplasm 51 Internal membranes 52 Powering the cell: Mitochondria 52 The protein factory 53 Lysosomes 54 Building Blocks That Build You 54 Joining together: The structure of macromolecules 54 Polysaccharides 55 Lipids 55 Proteins 56 Nucleic acids 57 Genes and Genetic Material 58 Traiting you right 59 Gene structure 59 Synthesizing protein 60 The Cell Cycle 62 Cells that divide, cells that don't 62 Interphase 64 DNA replication 64 Mitosis 64 Organizing Cells into Tissues 67 Connecting with connective tissue 67 Continuing with epithelial tissue 68 Mixing it up with muscle tissue 70 Getting nervous about nervous tissue? 70 Part 2: Sizing Up the Structural Layers 71 Chapter 4: Getting the Skinny on Skin, Hair, and Nails 73 Functions of the Integument 74 Structure of the Integument 75 Touching the epidermis 75 Exploring the dermis 79 Getting under your skin: The hypodermis 81 Accessorizing Your Skin 81 Now hair this 81 Nailing nails 82 Nothing's bland about glands 82 Your Skin Saving You 84 Controlling your internal temperature 85 Your skin is sensational 85 Your skin is self-healing 86 Pathophysiology of the Integument 86 Skin cancer 86 Dermatitis 87 Alopecia 87 Nail problems as signs of possible medical conditions 88 Chapter 5: Scrutinizing the Skeletal System 89 Reporting for Duty: The Jobs of Your Skeleton 90 Checking Out the Skeleton's Makeup 90 Caring about connective tissue 90 The structure of a bone 93 Classifying bones 94 Bone Growth and Remodeling 95 The Axial Skeleton 96 Keeping your head up: The skull 97 Setting you straight on the curved spinal column 99 Being caged can be a good thing 101 The Appendicular Skeleton 102 Wearing girdles: Everybody has two 103 Going out on a limb: Arms and legs 105 Joints and the Movements They Allow 110 Categorizing the types of joints 110 Knowing what your joints can do 111 Pathophysiology of the Skeletal System 113 Abnormal curvature 113 Osteoporosis 113 Cleft palate 114 Arthritis 114 Fractures 115 Chapter 6: Muscles: Setting You in Motion 117 Functions of the Muscular System 118 Supporting your structure 118 Moving you 118 Poised positioning 119 Maintaining body temperature 119 Pushing things around inside 119 Talking about Tissue Types 121 Defining unique features of muscle cells 121 Skeletal muscle 123 Cardiac muscle 125 Smooth muscle 125 Getting a Grip on the Sliding Filament 126 Assembling a sarcomere 126 Telling the fiber to contract 127 Contracting and releasing the sarcomere 128 Naming the Skeletal Muscles 129 Starting at the top 130 Twisting the torso 132 Spreading your wings 135 Getting a leg up 136 Pathophysiology of the Muscular System 138 Muscular dystrophy 139 Muscle spasms 139 Fibromyalgia 140 Part 3: Talking to Yourself 141 Chapter 7: The Nervous System: Your Body's Circuit Board 143 Integrating the Input with the Output 144 Nervous tissues 144 Neurons 145 Neuroglial cells 146 Nerves 147 Ganglia and plexuses 147 Integrated Networks 147 Central nervous system 148 Peripheral nervous system 149 Thinking about Your Brain 150 Keeping conscious: Your cerebrum 152 Making your moves smooth: The cerebellum 152 Coming up roses: Your brain stem 153 Regulating systems: The diencephalon 154 Following fluid through the ventricles 154 Blood-brain barrier 155 Transmitting the Impulse 156 Across the neuron 156 Across the synapse 158 Making Sense of Your Senses 161 Touch 162 Hearing and balance 162 Sight 163 Olfaction 164 Taste 165 Pathophysiology of the Nervous System 166 Chronic pain syndrome 166 Multiple sclerosis 166 Macular degeneration 166 Chapter 8: The Endocrine System: Releasing Chemical Messages 167 Homing In on Hormones 168 Hormone chemistry 168 Hormone sources 169 Hormone receptors 171 Grouping the Glands 172 The taskmasters: The hypothalamus and pituitary 173 Controlling metabolism 175 Getting the gonads going 178 Enteric endocrine 180 Other endocrine glands 182 Pathophysiology of the Endocrine System 183 Abnormalities in insulin metabolism 183 Thyroid disorders 184 Androgen insensitivity 186 Part 4: Exploring the Inner Workings of the Body 187 Chapter 9: The Cardiovascular System: Getting Your Blood Pumping 189 Getting Substances from Here to There 190 Carrying Cargo: Your Blood and What's in It 190 Watering down your blood: Plasma 190 Transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide: Red blood cells 191 Plugging along with platelets 192 Putting up a good fight: White blood cells 192 Looking at Your Blood Vessels 193 Starting with the arteries 193 Cruising through the capillaries 194 Visiting the veins 196 Cardiac Anatomy 197 Sizing up the heart's structure 197 Examining the heart's tissues 199 Supplying blood to the heart 200 Cardiac Cycle 201 Generating electricity 201 Moving blood through the heart 204 The heartbeat 205 Physiology of Circulation 206 On the beating path: The circuits of blood through the heart and body 206 Putting your finger on your pulse 208 Going up, going down, holding steady: Blood pressure 208 Not going with the flow 209 Pathophysiology of the Cardiovascular System 210 Cardiac disorders 210 Vascular disorders 211 Blood disorders 212 Chapter 10: The Respiratory System: Breathing Life into Your Body 215 Functions of the Respiratory System 215 Nosing around Your Respiratory Anatomy 216 Nose 216 Pharynx 217 Trachea 219 Lungs 219 Diaphragm 220 Breathing: Everybody's Doing It 220 Normal breathing 221 Breathing under stress 221 Controlled breathing 222 Gas Exchange 224 The respiratory membrane 224 The trade-off 225 Pathophysiology of the Respiratory System 226 Hypoxemia 226 Airway disorders 227 Lungs 228 Chapter 11: The Digestive System: Beginning the Breakdown 231 Functions of the Digestive System 232 The Alimentary Canal 233 Examining the walls of the digestive tract 233 Starting with the mighty mouth 234 Pharynx and esophagus: Not Egyptian landmarks 235 Stirring it up in your stomach 236 Moving through the intestines 238 Accessory Organs 240 The liver delivers 241 Pancreas 243 The Breakdown 244 Pathophysiology of the Digestive System 246 Diseases of the oral cavity 246 Disorders of the stomach and intestines 246 Bowel syndromes 248 Diseases of the accessory organs 249 Chapter 12: The Urinary System: Cleaning Up the Act 253 Functions of the Urinary System 253 Structures of the Urinary System 255 Putting out the trash: Kidneys 255 Holding and releasing 257 The Yellow River 259 Composition of urine 259 Filtering the blood 261 Selectively reabsorbing 261 Expelling urine 263 Maintaining Homeostasis 264 Fluid balance and blood pressure 264 Regulating blood pH 265 Pathophysiology of the Urinary System 267 Kidney pathologies 267 Urinary tract pathologies 268 Chapter 13: The Lymphatic System: Living in a Microbe Jungle 271 Functions of the Lymphatic System 272 Loving Your Lymphatic System 273 Lymphing along 273 Structures of the lymphatic system 274 Identifying Immune System Cells 277 Looking at leukocytes 278 Lymphocytes 279 Phagocytizing leukocytes 280 Examining Immune System Molecules 280 Histamine 281 Chemical defense 281 Antigens 281 Antibodies 282 Complement system proteins 283 Immune System Mechanisms 284 Phagocytosis 284 Degranulation 285 Inflammation is swell 285 Adaptive Immunity 286 Cell-mediated immunity 286 Humoral immunity 287 Secondary immunity 289 Immunization 289 Pathophysiology of the Immune System 289 The immune system and cancer 289 Immune-mediated diseases 290 Infectious diseases 292 Part 5: Life's Rich Pageant: Reproduction and Development 295 Chapter 14: The Reproductive System 297 Functions of the Reproductive System 297 Producing Gametes 298 Meiosis 299 Female gametes: Ova 299 Male gametes: Sperm 301 Determining sex 302 The Female Reproductive System 303 Organs of the female reproductive system 303 Cycling approximately monthly 307 The Male Reproductive System 310 The organs of the male reproductive system 310 Seminal fluid and ejaculation 312 Pausing for Pregnancy 313 Steps to fertilization 313 Implantation 314 Adapting to pregnancy 314 Labor and delivery 316 Pathophysiology of the Reproductive System 318 Infertility 318 Sexually transmitted infections 318 Premenstrual syndromes 319 Endometriosis 319 Cryptorchidism 320 Hypogonadism 320 Erectile dysfunction 320 Pathophysiology of pregnancy 320 Pregnancy loss 322 Chapter 15: Change and Development over the Life Span 323 Programming Development 324 Stages of development 324 Dimensions of development 324 Development before Birth 326 Free-floating zygote to protected embryo 326 Dividing development into trimesters 329 The Human Life Span 331 Changes at birth 331 Infancy and childhood 333 Adolescence 334 Young adulthood 335 Middle age 336 Growing creaky 336 Part 6: The Part of Tens 341 Chapter 16: Ten (Or So) Chemistry Concepts Related to Anatomy and Physiology 343 Energy Can Neither Be Created Nor Destroyed 344 Everything Falls Apart 344 Everything's in Motion 345 Probability Rules 345 Polarity Charges Life 346 Water Is Special 346 Fluids and Solids 347 Under Pressure 348 Redox Reactions Transfer Electrons 348 Chapter 17: Ten Phabulous Physiology Phacts 349 Unique to You: Hands, Fingers, Thumbs 349 Nothing's Better than Mother's Milk 350 It's Apparent: Your Hair Is Different 350 The Only Thing You Have to Fear Is 351 You Smell Well! 352 Microbes: We Are Their World 353 The Pesky Appendix 354 Talkin' about Breath Control 355 Taking Your First Breath 355 Is Blood Really Blue? 356 Index 357

About the Author

Erin Odya is an anatomy and physiology teacher at Carmel High School in Carmel, Indiana, one of Indiana's top schools. Maggie Norris is a freelance science writer living in the San Francisco Bay Area.

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