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Applied Electromagnetics
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Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Electromagnetic Fields 2 Electric Fields 3 Magnetic Fields 4 Field Linkage 4 1.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 5 1.3 Wireless Communications 6 1.4 Dealing with Units 8 1.5 Working with MATLAB 10 MATLAB Programs 15 1.6 Wave Fundamentals 19 1.7 Phasors 26 Summary 29 Problems 29 Chapter 2 Transmission Lines 31 2.1 Distributed-Parameter Model 32 Coaxial Cable 34 Telegraphist's Equations 37 2.2 Time-Harmonic Waves on Transmission Lines 39 Characteristic Impedance 42 Lossless Line 43 2.3 Power Transmission 45 2.4 Terminated T-Lines 48 Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 50 Input Impedance 51 Complex Loads 53 Special Terminations 54 2.5 The Complete Circuit 55 2.6 The Smith Chart 62 Smith Chart Derivation 62 Using the Smith Chart 69 Impedance Measurement 73 2.7 Impedance Matching 76 Quarter-Wave Transformer 78 Matching with the Smith Chart 79 Admittance of Shunt Stubs 81 Shunt Stub Matching 84 2.8 Transients 87 Pulse Response 91 Practical Application: Schottky-Diode Terminations 95 Reactive Loads 96 Time-Domain Reflectometry 99 2.9 Dispersion 101 Summary 107 Problems 108 Chapter 3 Electrostatics 114 3.1 Vectors in the Cartesian Coordinate System 115 3.2 Coulomb's Law 122 Electric Field Intensity 124 Field Lines 125 3.3 The Spherical Coordinate System 126 3.4 Line Charges and the Cylindrical Coordinate System 129 Infinite Length Line of Charge 133 Ring of Charge 138 3.5 Surface and Volume Charge 139 Volume Charge 145 Practical Application: Laser Printer 148 3.6 Electric Flux Density 149 3.7 Gauss's Law and Applications 153 Coaxial Cable 157 3.8 Divergence and the Point Form of Gauss's Law 161 3.9 Electric Potential 166 Gradient 171 3.10 Conductors and Ohm's Law 176 Current and Current Density 178 Joule's Law 181 3.11 Dielectrics 182 Practical Application: Electret Microphone 185 3.12 Boundary Conditions 186 3.13 Boundary Value Problems 190 3.14 Capacitance 194 Electrostatic Potential Energy 198 Practical Application: Electrolytic Capacitors 199 Summary 200 Problems 202 Chapter 4 Magnetostatics 208 4.1. Magnetic Fields and Cross Product 209 Oersted's Experiment 214 4.2 Biot-Savart's Law 214 Solenoid 221 Surface and Volume Current Densities 222 4.3 Ampe`re's Circuital Law 224 4.4 Curl and the Point Form of Ampere's Circuital Law 234 Stoke's Theorem 236 4.5 Magnetic Flux Density 237 4.6 Magnetic Forces 240 Force on a Current Element 241 Magnetic Torque and Moment 246 Practical Application: Loudspeakers 250 4.7 Magnetic Materials 251 4.8 Boundary Conditions 251 4.9 Inductance and Magnetic Energy 261 Mutual Inductance 264 Magnetic Energy 266 4.10 Magnetic Circuits 269 Electromagnets 273 Practical Application: Maglev 276 Summary 278 Problems 280 Chapter 5 Dynamic Fields 286 5.1 Current Continuity and Relaxation Time 286 5.2 Faraday's Law and Transformer EMF 288 Transformer EMF 290 Transformers 293 Point Form of Faraday's Law 295 5.3 Faraday's Law and Motional EMF 296 Generators 299 5.4 Displacement Current 301 5.5 Maxwell's Equations 305 5.6 Lossless TEM Waves 306 5.7 Time-Harmonic Fields and Phasors 312 Summary 315 Problems 316 Chapter 6 Plane Waves 320 6.1 General Wave Equations 321 Time-Harmonic Wave Equations 322 Propagating Fields Relation 327 6.2 Propagation in Lossless, Charge-Free Media 328 6.3 Propagation in Dielectrics 330 Low-Loss Dielectrics 332 Loss Tangent 333 6.4 Propagation in Conductors 335 Current in Conductors 337 6.5 The Poynting Theorem and Power Transmission 342 UPW Power Transmission 344 6.6 Polarization 347 Practical Application: Liquid Crystal Displays 352 6.7 Reflection and Transmission at Normal Incidence 353 General Case 353 Standing Waves 358 6.8 Reflection and Transmission at Oblique Incidence 359 TE Polarization 360 TM Polarization 366 Summary 368 Problems 370 Chapter 7 Waveguides 373 7.1 Rectangular Waveguide Fundamentals 374 Wave Propagation 377 Waveguide Impedance 381 Practical Application: Microwave Ovens 384 7.2 Waveguide Field Equations 385 TM Mode 388 TE Mode 394 7.3 Dielectric Waveguide 398 TE Mode 401 TM Mode 403 Field Equations 404 7.4 Optical Fiber 407 Numerical Aperture 410 Signal Degradation 411 Attenuation 412 Graded-Index Fiber 413 7.5 Fiber-Optic Communication Systems 413 Optical Sources 414 Optical Detectors 416 Repeaters and Optical Amplifiers 417 Connections 418 7.6 Optical Link Design 419 Power Budget 419 Rise-Time Budget 420 Summary 423 Suggested References 424 Problems 424 Chapter 8 Antennas 426 8.1 General Properties 428 Radiated Power 428 Radiation Patterns 429 Directivity 431 Impedance and Efficiency 436 A Commercial Antenna 445 8.2 Electrically Short Antennas 438 Vector Magnetic Potential 438 The Hertzian Dipole 441 The Small Loop Antenna 445 8.3 Dipole Antennas 447 Derivation of Fields 448 Antenna Properties 451 Half-Wave Dipole 458 8.4 Monopole Antennas 462 Image Theory 462 Antenna Properties 463 Practical Considerations 465 8.5 Antenna Arrays 467 Pair of Hertzian Dipoles 469 N-Element Linear Array 473 Parasitic Arrays 475 8.6 The Friis Transmission Equation 476 Polarization Efficiency 476 Receiver Matching 483 8.7 Radar 484 Doppler Frequency Shift 486 8.8 Antennas for Wireless Communications 487 Parabolic Reflectors 488 Patch Antennas 489 Slot Antennas 490 Folded Dipole Antennas 491 Summary 492 Suggested References 494 Problems 494 Chapter 9 Electromagnetic Interference 499 9.1 Interference Sources 500 Lightning 500 Electrostatic Discharge 500 Power Disturbance Sources 501 Radio Transmitters 502 9.2 Passive Circuit Elements 503 Conductors 503 Resistors 506 Inductors 510 Capacitors 513 9.3 Digital Signals 517 9.4 Grounds 519 Bond Wires 521 Signal Grounds 521 Loop Area 524 9.5 Shields 524 Shielded Cable 531 9.6 Filters 531 Reflective Filters 531 Ferrite Chokes 537 Summary 538 Suggested References 539 Problems 540 Chapter 10 Microwave Engineering 541 10.1 Microstrip 543 Attenuation 549 Other Planar T-Lines 550 10.2 Lumped-Element Matching Networks 551 10.3 Scattering Parameters 557 Reciprocal Networks 562 Lossless Networks 563 Return Loss and Insertion Loss 564 Shift in Reference Plane 565 The Vector Network Analyzer 567 10.4 Couplers and Dividers 568 Circulators 568 Three-Port Dividers 570 Couplers 571 10.5 Filters 576 Simple Filters 579 Multisection Filters 581 High-Pass Filters 586 Bandpass Filters 588 10.6 Amplifiers 592 Designing Matching Networks 596 Balanced Amplifiers 600 10.7 Receiver Design 602 Oscillators 602 Mixers 603 Microwave CAD 605 Practical Application: Radio Frequency Identification 606 Summary 607 Suggested References 608 Problems 609 Appendix A Vector Relations 614 Appendix B Coordinate System Transformations 617 Appendix C Complex Numbers 621 Appendix D Integrals, Conversions, and Constants 623 Appendix E Material Properties 625 Appendix F Common MATLAB Math Functions 627 Appendix G Answers to Selected Problems 628 Index 650

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Stuart M. Wentworth received his B.S degree in Chemical Engineering from Auburn University, Alabama, in 1982 and his M.S. (1987) and Ph.D. (1990) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. He has been a member of the Electrical & Computer Engineering faculty at Auburn University, Alabama since 1990. Dr. Wentworth's research has focused on the high frequency characterization of materials used for electronics packaging. He is the author of Fundamentals of Electromagnetics with Engineering Applications (Wiley). Dr. Wentworth has received numerous teaching awards at Auburn University, including the Birdsong Merit Teaching Award in 1999. He is a Senior Member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).