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A concrete guide to the science of learning, instruction, and assessment written in a friendly tone and presented in a dynamic format. The underlying premise of Applying the Science of Learning is that educators can better help students learn if they understand the processes through which student learning takes place. In this clear and concise first edition text, educational psychology scholar Richard Mayer teaches readers how to apply the science of learning through understanding the reciprocal relationships between learning, instruction, and assessment. Utilizing the significant advances in scientific learning research over the last 25 years, this introductory text identifies the features of science of learning that are most relevant to education, explores the possible prescriptions of these findings for instructional methods, and highlights the essentials of evaluating instructional effectiveness through assessment. Applying the Science of Learning is also presented in an easy-to-read modular design and with a conversational tone - making it particularly student-friendly, whether it is being used as a supplement to a core textbook or as a standalone course text.
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Table of Contents

PrefaceIntroduction 1. The Big Three: Learning, Instruction, Assessment 2. Rationale for Applying the Science of Learning 3. What Is Applying the Science of Learning? 4. Historical Overview of the Relation Between the Science of Learning and the Science of Instruction 5. Viewing the Relation Between the Science of Learning and the Science of Instruction as Overlapping Goals Suggested Readings and ReferencesHow Learning Works 1. What Is Learning? 2. What is the Science of Learning? 3a. What Changes: Behavior or Knowledge? 3b. What Changes: General or Specific Transfer? 4. How Learning Works: Three Metaphors of Learning 4a. A Closer Look at Response Strengthening: Thorndike's Law of Effect 4b. A Closer Look at Information Acquisition: Ebbinghaus' Learning Curve 4c. A Closer Look at Knowledge Construction: Bartlett's Assimilation to Schema 5. How Learning Works: Three Principles from the Learning Sciences 5a. A Closer Look at Dual Channels: Paivio Concreteness Effect 5b. A Closer Look at Limited Capacity: Miller's Magic Number 7 5c. A Closer Look at Active Learning: Wittrock"s Generative Processes 6. How Learning Works: A Cognitive Model of Learning 6a. Three Memory Stores in Meaningful Learning 6b. Three Cognitive Processes in Meaningful Learning 7. The Mighty Ms: Motivation and Metacognition 7a. Motivation to Learn 7b. How Motivation Works 7c. Metacognition in Learning 8. Learning in Subject Areas 9. Eight Things We Know About Learning from Word Lists References and Suggested ReadingsHow Instruction Works 1. What Is Instruction? 2. What Is the Science of Instruction? 3. What Is an Instructional Objective? 3a. Three Levels of Instructional Objectives 3b. Five Kinds of Knowledge in Instructional Objectives 3c. Six Kinds of Cognitive Processes in Instructional Objectives 4. How Instruction Works: Three Demands on Cognitive Capacity 5. How Instruction Works: Three Instructional Scenarios 6. Twelve Instructional Design Principles for Lesson Learning 6a. Evidence-Based Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing 6b. Evidence-Based Principles for Managing Essential Processing 6c. Evidence-Based Principles for Fostering Generative Processing 7. Eight Instructional Design Principles for Effective Studying 7a. Evidence-Based Principles for Studying by Practicing 7b. Evidence-Based Principles for Studying by Generating 8. How to Guide Cognitive Processing During Learning 8a. Instructional Techniques for Selecting 8b. Instructional Techniques for Organizing 8c. Instructional Techniques for Integrating 9. Three Popular But Questionable Principles 10a. How Active Teaching Methods Can Go Wrong 10b. Two Kinds of Active Learning References and Suggested ReadingsHow Assessment Works 1. What Is Assessment? 1a. Three Functions of Assessments 2. What Is the Science of Assessment? 2a. Using Instructional Objectives in Assessment 2b. How to Construct a Useful Assessment Instrument 3. What Is Research on Instructional Effects? 3a. What Works? Using Randomized Controlled Experiments 3b. When Does It Work? Using Factorial Experiments 3c. How Does It Work? Using Observational Analysis 4. A Closer Look at Experiments 4a. Using Effect Size to Assess Instructional Effects 4b. Six Reasons for No Difference Between the Treatment and Control Groups 5. How to Assess Learning Outcomes 5a. Two Ways to Measure Learning Outcomes 5b. Three Kinds of Learning Outcomes 6a. A Closer Look at Meaningful Versus Rote Learning: Wertheimer's Parallelogram Lesson 6b. A Closer Look at Assessment of Learning Outcomes: How Much or What Kind? 7. Broadening the Domain of Assessment 8. A Closer Look at Broadening the Domain of Assessment: Attribute Treatment Interactions 8a. Attribute Treatment Interactions Involving Prior Knowledge 9. What Can Go Wrong with Assessments? References and Suggested Readings EpilogueAbout the AuthorGlossaryAuthor IndexSubject Index

Preface Introduction 1. The Big Three: Learning, Instruction, Assessment 2. Rationale for Applying the Science of Learning 3. What Is Applying the Science of Learning? 4. Historical Overview of the Relation Between the Science of Learning and the Science of Instruction 5. Viewing the Relation Between the Science of Learning and the Science of Instruction as Overlapping Goals Suggested Readings and References How Learning Works 1. What Is Learning? 2. What is the Science of Learning? 3a. What Changes: Behavior or Knowledge? 3b. What Changes: General or Specific Transfer? 4. How Learning Works: Three Metaphors of Learning 4a. A Closer Look at Response Strengthening: Thorndike's Law of Effect 4b. A Closer Look at Information Acquisition: Ebbinghaus' Learning Curve 4c. A Closer Look at Knowledge Construction: Bartlett's Assimilation to Schema 5. How Learning Works: Three Principles from the Learning Sciences 5a. A Closer Look at Dual Channels: Paivio Concreteness Effect 5b. A Closer Look at Limited Capacity: Miller's Magic Number 7 5c. A Closer Look at Active Learning: Wittrock"s Generative Processes 6. How Learning Works: A Cognitive Model of Learning 6a. Three Memory Stores in Meaningful Learning 6b. Three Cognitive Processes in Meaningful Learning 7. The Mighty Ms: Motivation and Metacognition 7a. Motivation to Learn 7b. How Motivation Works 7c. Metacognition in Learning 8. Learning in Subject Areas 9. Eight Things We Know About Learning from Word Lists References and Suggested Readings How Instruction Works 1. What Is Instruction? 2. What Is the Science of Instruction? 3. What Is an Instructional Objective? 3a. Three Levels of Instructional Objectives 3b. Five Kinds of Knowledge in Instructional Objectives 3c. Six Kinds of Cognitive Processes in Instructional Objectives 4. How Instruction Works: Three Demands on Cognitive Capacity 5. How Instruction Works: Three Instructional Scenarios 6. Twelve Instructional Design Principles for Lesson Learning 6a. Evidence-Based Principles for Reducing Extraneous Processing 6b. Evidence-Based Principles for Managing Essential Processing 6c. Evidence-Based Principles for Fostering Generative Processing 7. Eight Instructional Design Principles for Effective Studying 7a. Evidence-Based Principles for Studying by Practicing 7b. Evidence-Based Principles for Studying by Generating 8. How to Guide Cognitive Processing During Learning 8a. Instructional Techniques for Selecting 8b. Instructional Techniques for Organizing 8c. Instructional Techniques for Integrating 9. Three Popular But Questionable Principles 10a. How Active Teaching Methods Can Go Wrong 10b. Two Kinds of Active Learning References and Suggested Readings How Assessment Works 1. What Is Assessment? 1a. Three Functions of Assessments 2. What Is the Science of Assessment? 2a. Using Instructional Objectives in Assessment 2b. How to Construct a Useful Assessment Instrument 3. What Is Research on Instructional Effects? 3a. What Works? Using Randomized Controlled Experiments 3b. When Does It Work? Using Factorial Experiments 3c. How Does It Work? Using Observational Analysis 4. A Closer Look at Experiments 4a. Using Effect Size to Assess Instructional Effects 4b. Six Reasons for No Difference Between the Treatment and Control Groups 5. How to Assess Learning Outcomes 5a. Two Ways to Measure Learning Outcomes 5b. Three Kinds of Learning Outcomes 6a. A Closer Look at Meaningful Versus Rote Learning: Wertheimer's Parallelogram Lesson 6b. A Closer Look at Assessment of Learning Outcomes: How Much or What Kind? 7. Broadening the Domain of Assessment 8. A Closer Look at Broadening the Domain of Assessment: Attribute Treatment Interactions 8a. Attribute Treatment Interactions Involving Prior Knowledge 9. What Can Go Wrong with Assessments? References and Suggested Readings Epilogue About the Author Glossary Author Index Subject Index

About the Author

Richard E. Mayer is Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His research interests include educational and cognitive psychology. He received the E. L. Thorndike Award for career achievement in educational psychology and the Distinguished Contribution of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training Award from the American Psychological Association. He is the author of numerous publications and 23 books, including Multimedia Learning (Cambridge, 2009), Learning and Instruction (Prentice Hall, 2008), E-Learning and the Science of Instruction (Pfeiffer, 2008) with Ruth Clark.

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