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Art History: Combined Volume


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BRIEF CONTENTS CONTENTS vii PREFACE xii WHAT'S NEW xiv FACULTY AND STUDENT RESOURCES FOR ART HISTORY xviiiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND GRATITUDE xixUSE NOTES xxi STARTER KIT xxii INTRODUCTION xxvi Chapter 1 PREHISTORIC ART 1Chapter 2 ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 27Chapter 3 ART OF ANCIENT EGYPT 49Chapter 4 ART OF THE ANCIENT AEGEAN 81Chapter 5 ART OF ANCIENT GREECE 101Chapter 6 ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ART 159Chapter 7 JEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, AND BYZANTINE ART 217Chapter 8 ISLAMIC ART 261Chapter 9 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 291Chapter 10 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART BEFORE 1279 325Chapter 11 JAPANESE ART BEFORE 1333 355Chapter 12 ART OF THE AMERICAS BEFORE 1300 377Chapter 13 EARLY AFRICAN ART 403Chapter 14 EARLY MEDIEVAL ART IN EUROPE 423Chapter 15 ROMANESQUE ART 453Chapter 16 GOTHIC ART OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES 491Chapter 17 FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 529Chapter 18 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE 561Chapter 19 RENAISSANCE ART IN FIFTEENTH CENTURY ITALY 593Chapter 20 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN ITALY 631Chapter 21 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA 677Chapter 22 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 711Chapter 23 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AFTER 1200 771Chapter 24 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART AFTER 1279 791Chapter 25 JAPANESE ART AFTER 1333 813Chapter 26 ART OF THE AMERICAS AFTER 1300 835Chapter 27 ART OF PACIFIC CULTURES 859Chapter 28 ART OF AFRICA IN THE MODERN ERA 879Chapter 29 EIGHTEENTH- AND EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA 903Chapter 30 MID- TO LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 961Chapter 31 MODERN ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS, 1900-1950 1017Chapter 32 THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE SINCE 1950 1083 CONTEMPORARY WORLD MAP 1136GLOSSARY 1137 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1146CREDITS 1158 INDEX 1163 DETAILED CONTENTS CONTENTS vii PREFACE xiv WHAT'S NEW xv FACULTY AND STUDENT RESOURCES FOR ART HISTORY xviiiACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND GRATITUDE xix USE NOTES xxi STARTER KIT xxii INTRODUCTION xxvi CHAPTER 1 PREHISTORIC ART 1THE STONE AGE 2THE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD 2Shelter or Architecture? 4Artifacts or Works of Art? 5Cave Painting 8Cave Sculptures 12THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD 13Architecture 13Sculpture and Ceramics 20NEW METALLURGY, ENDURING STONE 22The Bronze Age 22Rock Carvings 23BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Power of Naming 6Intentional House Burning 20THE OBJECT SPEAKSPrehistoric Woman and Man 24A CLOSER LOOKA House in Catalhoeyuk 15ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREEarly Construction Methods 16TECHNIQUEPrehistoric Wall Painting 10Pottery and Ceramics 22RECOVERING THE PASTHow Early Art is Dated 12 CHAPTER 2 ART OF THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST 27THE FERTILE CRESCENT AND MESOPOTAMIA 28Sumer 28Akkad 33Ur and Lagash 36Babylon 37THE HITTITES OF ANATOLIA 37ASSYRIA 39Kalhu (Nimrud) 39Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad) 41Nineveh (Kuyunjik) 43NEO-BABYLONIA 43PERSIA 44BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSArt as Spoils of War-Protection or Theft? 32The Code of Hammurabi 38THE OBJECT SPEAKSA Lyre from a Royal Tomb in Ur 34A CLOSER LOOKEnemies Crossing the Euphrates to Escape Assyrian Archers 41TECHNIQUECuneiform Writing 30Textiles 43 CHAPTER 3 ART OF ANCIENT EGYPT 49THE GIFT OF THE NILE 50EARLY DYNASTIC EGYPT, C. 2950-2575 BCE 50The God-Kings 50Artistic Conventions 51Funerary Architecture 53THE OLD KINGDOM, C. 2575-2150 BCE 55The Great Pyramids at Giza 55Sculpture 59Pictorial Relief in Tombs 61THE MIDDLE KINGDOM, C. 1975-C. 1640 BCE 62Portraits of Senusret III 62Rock-Cut Tombs 62Funerary Stelae 63Town Planning 64THE NEW KINGDOM, C. 1539-1075 BCE 64The Great Temple Complexes 65Hatshepsut 67The Tomb of Ramose 69Akhenaten and the Art of the Amarna Period 70The Return to Tradition: Tutankhamun and Ramses II 72The Books of the Dead 76THE THIRD INTERMEDIATE PERIOD, C. 1075-715 BCE 78LATE EGYPTIAN ART, C. 715-332 BCE 79BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSEgyptian Symbols 51THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Temples of Ramses II at Abu Simbel 74A CLOSER LOOKThe Palette of Narmer 52ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREMastaba to Pyramid 55TECHNIQUEPreserving The Dead 56Egyptian Pictorial Relief 65Glassmaking 73RECOVERING THE PASTThe Rosetta Stone 77 CHAPTER 4 ART OF THE ANCIENT AEGEAN 81THE BRONZE AGE IN THE AEGEAN 82THE CYCLADIC ISLANDS 82THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION ON CRETE 84The "Old Palace" Period, c. 1900-1700 BCE 84The "New Palace" Period, c. 1700-1450 BCE 86THE MYCENAEAN (HELLADIC) CULTURE 92Helladic Architecture 92Mycenaean Tombs 95Ceramic Arts 99BOXESTHE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Lion Gate 96A CLOSER LOOKThe "Flotilla Fresco" from Akrotiri 92TECHNIQUEAegean Metalwork 87RECOVERING THE PASTPioneers of Aegean Archaeology 91The "Mask of Agamemnon" 95 CHAPTER 5 ART OF ANCIENT GREECE 101THE EMERGENCE OF GREEK CIVILIZATION 102Historical Background 102Religious Beliefs and Sacred Places 102GREEK ART C. 900-C. 600 BCE 102The Geometric Period 102The Orientalizing Period 105THE ARCHAIC PERIOD, C. 600-480 BCE 107The Sanctuary at Delphi 107Temples 108Free-standing Sculpture 114Painted Pots 117THE EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 480-450 BCE 120Marble Sculpture 121Bronze Sculpture 124Ceramic Painting 127THE HIGH CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 450-400 BCE 128The Acropolis 129The Parthenon 130The Propylaia and the Erechtheion 136The Temple of Athena Nike 137The Athenian Agora 138City Plans 138Stele Sculpture 140Painting 141THE LATE CLASSICAL PERIOD, C. 400-323 BCE 142Sculpture 143The Art of the Goldsmith 146Painting and Mosaics 146THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, 323-31/30 BCE 149The Corinthian Order in Hellenistic Architecture 149Sculpture 151BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSGreek and Roman Deities 104Classic and Classical 124Who Owns the Art? The ElginMarbles and the Euphronios Krater 135Women at a Fountain House 139Women Artists in Ancient Greece 148Greek Theaters 150The Celts 152THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Tomb of the Diver 122A CLOSER LOOKThe Euphronios Krater 119ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREThe Greek Orders 110TECHNIQUEColor in Greek Sculpture 113Black-Figure and Red-Figure 120The Canon of Polykleitos 134RECOVERING THE PASTThe Riace Warriors 127 CHAPTER 6 ETRUSCAN AND ROMAN ART 159THE ETRUSCANS 160Etruscan Architecture 160Etruscan Temples 160Tomb Chambers 162Works in Bronze 166THE ROMANS 168Origins of Rome 168Roman Religion 169THE REPUBLIC, 509-27 BCE 169Portrait Sculpture 169ROMAN TEMPLES 173THE EARLY EMPIRE, 27 BCE-96 CE 174Art in the Age of Augustus 174The Julio-Claudians 178Roman Cities and the Roman Home 178Wall Painting 181The Flavians 187THE HIGH IMPERIAL ART OF TRAJAN AND HADRIAN 190Imperial Architecture 191Imperial Portraits 201THE LATE EMPIRE, THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES 203The Severan Dynasty 204The Soldier Emperors 204Constantine the Great 208Roman Art after Constantine 213BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSRoman Writers on Art 169Roman Portraiture 170THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Ara Pacis Augustae 176A CLOSER LOOKSarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus 206ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURERoman Architectural Orders 163The Roman Arch 172Roman Vaulting 188Concrete 196TECHNIQUERoman Mosaics 202RECOVERING THE PASTThe Mildenhall Treasure 214 CHAPTER 7 JEWISH, EARLY CHRISTIAN, AND BYZANTINE ART 217JEWS, CHRISTIANS, AND MUSLIMS 218Early Jewish Art 218Early Christian Art 222IMPERIAL CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE AND ART 226Architecture 226Sculpture 229Ravenna 230EARLY BYZANTINE ART 233The Golden Age of Justinian 233Objects of Veneration and Devotion 242Icons and Iconoclasm 244MIDDLE BYZANTINE ART 246Architecture and Mosaics 247Objects of Veneration and Devotion 252LATE BYZANTINE ART 254Constantinople: The Chora Church 254Moscow: Rublyov 259BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSNarrative and Iconic 224The Life of Jesus 231Naming Christian Churches: Designation + Dedication + Location 239Scroll and Codex 243Iconoclasm 246THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Funerary Chapel of Theodore Metochites 256A CLOSER LOOKThe Mosaic Floor of the Beth Alpha Synagogue 221ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURELongitudinal-Plan and Central-Plan Churches 228Pendentives and Squinches 236RECOVERING THE PASTDura-Europos 223 CHAPTER 8 ISLAMIC ART 261ISLAM AND EARLY ISLAMIC SOCIETY 262ART AND ARCHITECTURE THROUGH THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 265Early Architecture 265THE LATER PERIOD 270Architecture of the Mediterranean 271Architecture of the East 275Portable Arts 276The Arts of the Book 279Manuscript Painting 280ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE THREE EMPIRES 282The Ottoman Empire 282The Safavid Dynasty 285Mughal Dynasty 288THE MODERN ERA 289BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Five Pillars of Islam 267THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Great Mosque of Cordoba 268A CLOSER LOOKA Mamluk Glass Oil Lamp 273ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREArches 271TECHNIQUEOrnament 264Carpet Making 286 CHAPTER 9 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 291THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT 292INDUS CIVILIZATION 292THE VEDIC PERIOD 295THE MAURYA PERIOD 295THE PERIOD OF THE SHUNGAS AND EARLY ANDHRAS 298Stupas 298Buddhist Rock-Cut Halls 302THE KUSHAN AND LATER ANDHRA PERIODS 302The Gandhara Style 303The Mathura Style 303The Southeast Indian Style 305THE FOURTH THROUGH SEVENTH CENTURIES 306Buddhist Sculpture 306Painting 306The Early Northern Temple 308Monumental Narrative Reliefs 309The Early Southern Temple 312THE EIGHTH THROUGH THE FOURTEENTH CENTURIES 312The Monumental Northern Temple 313The Monumental Southern Temple 317The Bhakti Movement in Art 318ART OF SOUTHEAST ASIA 319BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSBuddhism 297Hinduism 298Mudras 304Meaning and Ritual in Hindu Temples and Images 310THE OBJECT SPEAKSShiva Nataraja of the Chola Dynasty 314A CLOSER LOOKDescent of the Ganges Relief, Mamallapuram 313ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREStupas and Temples 301 CHAPTER 10 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART BEFORE 1279 325THE MIDDLE KINGDOM 326NEOLITHIC CULTURES 326Painted Pottery Cultures 326Liangzhu Culture 326BRONZE AGE CHINA 328Shang Dynasty 328Zhou Dynasty 329THE CHINESE EMPIRE: QIN DYNASTY 332HAN DYNASTY 332Philosophy and Art 333Architecture 335SIX DYNASTIES 335Painting 336Calligraphy 337Buddhist Art and Architecture 338SUI AND TANG DYNASTIES 338Buddhist Art and Architecture 339Figure Painting 343SONG DYNASTY 344Philosophy: Neo-Confucianism 345Northern Song Painting 345Southern Song Painting and Ceramics 348THE ARTS OF KOREA 350The Three Kingdoms Period 350The Unified Silla Period 352Goryeo Dynasty 352BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSChinese Characters 331Daoism 334Confucius and Confucianism 337THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Silk Road during the Tang Period 342A CLOSER LOOKRubbing of a stone relief 335ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREPagodas 345TECHNIQUEPiece-Mold Casting 329 CHAPTER 11 JAPANESE ART BEFORE 1333 355PREHISTORIC JAPAN 356Jomon Period 356Yayoi Period 356Kofun Period 356ASUKA PERIOD 359Horyuji 360NARA PERIOD 361HEIAN PERIOD 363Esoteric Buddhist Art 363Pure Land Buddhist Art 365Secular Painting and Calligraphy 367KAMAKURA PERIOD 370Pure Land Buddhist Art 371Zen Buddhist Art 375BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSWriting, Language, and Culture 357Buddhist Symbols 362Arms and Armor 371THE OBJECT SPEAKSDaruma, Founder of Zen 374A CLOSER LOOKThe Tale of Genji 368TECHNIQUEJoined-Block Wood Sculpture 366RECOVERING THE PASTThe Great Buddha Hall 364 CHAPTER 12 ART OF THE AMERICAS BEFORE 1300 377THE NEW WORLD 378MESOAMERICA 378The Olmec 378Teotihuacan 381The Maya 384CENTRAL AMERICA 390SOUTH AMERICA: THE CENTRAL ANDES 391Chavin de Huantar 391The Paracas and Nazca Cultures 392The Moche Culture 393NORTH AMERICA 395The East 395The North American Southwest 397BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSMaya Writing 385The Cosmic Ballgame 389THE OBJECT SPEAKSRock Art 400A CLOSER LOOKMaya Stela 387TECHNIQUEAndean Textiles 394 CHAPTER 13 EARLY AFRICAN ART 403THE LURE OF ANCIENT AFRICA 404AFRICA-THE CRADLE OF ART AND CIVILIZATION 404AFRICAN ROCK ART 404Saharan Rock Art 405SUB-SAHARAN CIVILIZATIONS 406Nok 407Igbo-Ukwu 408Ife 409Benin 410OTHER URBAN CENTERS 416Jenne 416Great Zimbabwe 417Aksum and Lalibela 419Kongo Kingdom 419EXPORTING TO THE WEST 421BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Myth of "Primitive" Art 406Southern African Rock Art 408THE OBJECT SPEAKSA Warrior Chief Pledging Loyalty 414A CLOSER LOOKIgbo-Ukwu 413TECHNIQUELost-Wax Casting 415 CHAPTER 14 EARLY MEDIEVAL ART IN EUROPE 423THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES 424THE ART OF THE "BARBARIANS" IN EUROPE 425The Merovingians 425The Norse 427The Celts and Anglo-Saxons in Britain 427THE EARLY CHRISTIAN ART OF THE BRITISH ISLES 428Illustrated Books 429MOZARABIC ART IN SPAIN 433Beatus Manuscripts 433THE VIKING ERA 435The Oseberg Ship 435Picture Stones at Jelling 436Timber Architecture 436THE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE 438Carolingian Architecture 438Illustrated Books 442Carolingian Metalwork 445OTTONIAN EUROPE 446Ottonian Architecture 446Ottonian Sculpture 448Illustrated Books 450BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSDefining the Middle Ages 425The Medieval Scriptorium 432THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Lindisfarne Gospels 430A CLOSER LOOKPsalm 23 in the Utrecht Psalter 445RECOVERING THE PASTSutton Hoo 429 CHAPTER 15 ROMANESQUE ART 453EUROPE IN THE ROMANESQUE PERIOD 454Political and Economic Life 454The Church 454ROMANESQUE ART 455ARCHITECTURE 456"First Romanesque" 457"Pilgrimage Churches" 457Cluny 460The Cistercians 463Regional Styles in Romanesque Architecture 464Secular Architecture: Dover Castle, England 472ARCHITECTURAL SCULPTURE 473Wiligelmo at the Cathedral of Modena 474The Priory Church of Saint-Pierre at Moissac 474The Church of Saint-Lazare at Autun 477SCULPTURE IN WOOD AND BRONZE 480Christ on the Cross (Majestat Batllo) 480Mary as the Throne of Wisdom 480Tomb of Rudolf of Swabia 481Reiner of Huy 482TEXTILES AND BOOKS 482Chronicling History 483Sacred Books 486BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Pilgrim's Journey 458Relics and Reliquaries 462St. Bernard and Theophilus: The Monastic Controversy over the Visual Arts 464The Paintings of San Climent in Taull: Mozarabic Meets Byzantine 468Hildegard of Bingen 487THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Bayeux Embroidery 484A CLOSER LOOKThe Last Judgment Tympanum at Autun 478ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREThe Romanesque Church Portal 473 CHAPTER 16 GOTHIC ART OF THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES 491THE EMERGENCE OF THE GOTHIC STYLE 492The Rise of Urban and Intellectual Life 492The Age of Cathedrals 493GOTHIC ART IN FRANCE 493The Birth of Gothic at the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis 494Gothic Cathedrals 496Art in the Age of St. Louis 507GOTHIC ART IN ENGLAND 512Manuscript Illumination 512Architecture 515GOTHIC ART IN GERMANY AND THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 517Architecture 518Sculpture 520GOTHIC ART IN ITALY 522Sculpture: The Pisano Family 522Painting 525BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSAbbot Suger on the Value of Art in Monasteries 493Master Builders 502Villard de Honnecourt 508THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Sainte-Chapelle in Paris 510A CLOSER LOOKThe Opening of Psalm 1 in the Windmill Psalter 514ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURERib Vaulting 497The Gothic Church 499TECHNIQUEStained-Glass Windows 496RECOVERING THE PASTThe Church of St. Francis at Assisi 523 CHAPTER 17 FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 529FOURTEENTH-CENTURY EUROPE 530ITALY 531Florentine Architecture and Metalwork 532Florentine Painting 532Sienese Painting 539FRANCE 547Manuscript Illumination 547Metalwork and Ivory 549ENGLAND 552Embroidery: Opus Anglicanum 552Architecture 554THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE 554Mysticism and Suffering 554The Supremacy of Prague 555BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSA New Spirit in Fourteenth-Century Literature 531The Black Death 546THE OBJECT SPEAKSAn Ivory Chest with Scenes of Romance 550A CLOSER LOOKThe Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux 548TECHNIQUEBuon Fresco 537Cennino Cennini on Panel Painting 542 CHAPTER 18 FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE 561THE NORTHERN RENAISSANCE 562ART FOR THE FRENCH DUCAL COURTS 562Painting and Sculpture for the Chartreuse de Champmol 562Manuscript Illumination 566Textiles 568PAINTING IN FLANDERS 571The Founders of the Flemish School 571Painting at Mid Century: The Second Generation 580EUROPE BEYOND FLANDERS 583France 584Germany and Switzerland 586THE GRAPHIC ARTS 589Single Sheets 589Printed Books 589BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSAltars and Altarpieces 564Women Artists in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance 566THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Ghent Altarpiece 576A CLOSER LOOKA Goldsmith in his Shop 581TECHNIQUEOil Painting 571Woodcuts and Engravings on Metal 590 CHAPTER 19 RENAISSANCE ART IN FIFTEENTH-CENTURY ITALY 593HUMANISM AND THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 594FLORENCE 594Architecture 595Sculpture 602Painting 609Painting in Florence after Masaccio 612ITALIAN ART IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY 615Urbino 615Mantua 620Rome 621The Later Fifteenth Century in Florence 623Venice 627BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Competition Reliefs 601The Morelli-Nerli Wedding Chests 616THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Foundling Hospital 598A CLOSER LOOKPrimavera 626TECHNIQUERenaissance Perspective 608 CHAPTER 20 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN ITALY 631EUROPE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 632ITALY IN THE EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY: THE HIGH RENAISSANCE 632Three Great Artists of the Early Sixteenth Century 633Architecture in Rome and the Vatican 650Architecture, Painting, and Sculpture in Northern Italy 650Venice and the Veneto 654MANNERISM 659Painting 660Sculpture 665ART AND THE COUNTER-REFORMATION 666Art and Architecture in Rome and the Vatican 666LATER SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN VENICE AND THE VENETO 670Oil Painting 670Architecture: Palladio 672BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Vitruvian Man 637St. Peter's Basilica 651Women Patrons of the Arts 658Veronese is Called before the Inquisition 671THE OBJECT SPEAKSRaphael's Cartoons for Tapestries in the Sistine Chapel 646A CLOSER LOOKThe School of Athens 640 CHAPTER 21 SIXTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN NORTHERN EUROPE AND THE IBERIAN PENINSULA 677THE REFORMATION AND THE ARTS 678GERMANY 679Sculpture 679Painting 680FRANCE 689A French Renaissance under Francis I 689SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 692Architecture 694Painting 694THE NETHERLANDS 696Art for Aristocratic and Noble Patrons 696Antwerp 701ENGLAND 705Artists in the Tudor Court 705Architecture 708BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Castle of the Ladies 690Sculpture for the Knights of Christ at Tomar 693Armor for Royal Games 707THE OBJECT SPEAKSBreugel's Cycle of the Months 702A CLOSER LOOKThe French Ambassadors 704TECHNIQUEGerman Metalwork: A Collaborative Venture 684 CHAPTER 22 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE 711"BAROQUE" 712ITALY 712Architecture and Sculpture in Rome 712Painting 718SPAIN 729Painting in Spain's Golden Age 729Architecture in Spain 734FLANDERS AND THE NETHERLANDS 735Flanders 735The Dutch Republic 742France 755Architecture and its Decoration at Versailles 758Painting 759ENGLAND 765Architecture 765BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSScience and the Changing Worldview 756Grading the Old Masters 764THE OBJECT SPEAKSCaravaggio in the Contarelli Chapel 722A CLOSER LOOKBrueghel and Rubens's Allegory of Sight 740ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURESeventeenth-Century French Garden Design 760TECHNIQUEEtchings and Drypoint 748 CHAPTER 23 ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA AFTER 1200 771INDIA AFTER 1200 772Buddhist Art 772Jain Art 773Hindu Art 774THE BUDDHIST AND HINDU INHERITANCE IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 775Theravada Buddhism in Burma and Thailand 775Vietnamese Ceramics 777Indonesian Traditions 778MUGHAL PERIOD 778Mughal Architecture 779Mughal Painting 781Rajput Painting 784INDIA'S ENGAGEMENT WITH THE WEST 786British Colonial Period 786The Modern Period 787BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSTantric Influence in the Art of Nepal and Tibet 776Foundations of Indian Culture 778THE OBJECT SPEAKSLuxury Arts 782A CLOSER LOOKPrivate Audience Hall, Fatehpur Sikri 780TECHNIQUEIndian Painting on Paper 783 CHAPTER 24 CHINESE AND KOREAN ART AFTER 1279 791THE MONGOL INVASIONS 792YUAN DYNASTY 792MING DYNASTY 795Court and Professional Painting 796Decorative Arts 798Architecture and City Planning 799The Literati Aesthetic 800QING DYNASTY 804Orthodox Painting 805Individualist Painting 805THE MODERN PERIOD 806ARTS OF KOREA: THE JOSEON DYNASTY TO THE MODERN ERA 807Joseon Ceramics 807Joseon Painting 808Modern Korea 810BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSFoundations of Chinese Culture 793Marco Polo 794THE OBJECT SPEAKSPoet on a Mountaintop 802A CLOSER LOOKSpring Dawn in the Han Palace 798TECHNIQUEFormats of Chinese Painting 797The Secret of Porcelain 800 CHAPTER 25 JAPANESE ART AFTER 1333 813MUROMACHI PERIOD 814Zen Ink Painting 814The Zen Dry Garden 816MOMOYAMA PERIOD 817Architecture 818Decorative Paintings for Shoin Rooms 818The Tea Ceremony 820EDO PERIOD 821Rinpa School Painting 821Naturalistic Painting 824Literati Painting 825Ukiyo-e: Pictures of the Floating World 826Zen Painting: Buddhist Art for Rural Commoners 827Crafts 828THE MODERN PERIOD 829Meiji Period Nationalist Painting 829Japan After World War II 830BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSFoundations of Japanese Culture 817THE OBJECT SPEAKSLacquer Box for Writing Implements 822A CLOSER LOOKKosode with Design of Waves and Floral Bouquets 830ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREShoin Design 819TECHNIQUEInside a Writing Box 824Japanese Woodblock Prints 828RECOVERING THE PASTCraftmakers as Living National Treasures 832 CHAPTER 26 ART OF THE AMERICAS: AFTER 1300 835THE AZTEC EMPIRE 836Tenochtitlan 836Sculpture 837Featherwork 838Manuscripts 839THE INCA EMPIRE IN SOUTH AMERICA 840Cuzco 841Textiles 842Metalwork 843The Aftermath of the Spanish Conquest 843NORTH AMERICA 843The Eastern Woodlands 844The Great Plains 846The Northwest Coast 849The Southwest 852A NEW BEGINNING 855BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSNavajo Night Chant 854Craft or Art? 856THE OBJECT SPEAKSHamatsa Masks 850A CLOSER LOOKCalendar Stone 839ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREInca Masonry 842TECHNIQUEBasketry 845 CHAPTER 27 ART OF PACIFIC CULTURES 859THE PEOPLING OF THE PACIFIC 860AUSTRALIA 861MELANESIA 862New Guinea 863New Ireland 865New Britain 866MICRONESIA 866POLYNESIA 868Marquesas Islands 869Hawai'i 872Monumental Moai on Rapa Nui 873Samoa 874RECENT ART IN OCEANIA 874Pacific Arts Festival 974BOXESTHE OBJECT SPEAKSTe-Hau-ki-Turanga 870A CLOSER LOOKMan's Love Story 876 CHAPTER 28 ART OF AFRICA IN THE MODERN ERA 879TRADITIONAL AND CONTEMPORARY AFRICA 880Domestic Architecture 882Children and the Continuity of Life 883Initiation 885The Spirit World 889Leadership 891Death and Ancestors 895CONTEMPORARY ART 899BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSFoundations of African Cultures 883Divination among the Chokwe 892THE OBJECT SPEAKSKuba Funerary Rites 896A CLOSER LOOKKongo Nkisi Nkonde 890 CHAPTER 29 EIGHTEENTH AND EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA 903INDUSTRIAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS 904THE ROCOCO STYLE 904Rococo Salons 905Rococo Painting and Sculpture 906Rococo Church Decoration 910ITALY: THE GRAND TOUR AND NEOCLASSICISM 911Grand Tour Portraits and Views 911Neoclassicism in Rome 913NEOCLASSICISM AND EARLY ROMANTICISMIN BRITAIN 915The Classical Revival in Architecture and Design 916The Gothic Revival in Architecture and Design 919Trends in British Painting 920LATER EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ART IN FRANCE 930Architecture 930Painting and Sculpture 932ART IN SPAIN AND SPANISH AMERICA 938Portraiture and Protest in Spain: Goya 938The Art of the Americas under Spain 941EARLY NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART: NEOCLASSICISMAND ROMANTICISM 943Neoclassicism and Romanticism in France 944Romantic Landscape Painting 953Gothic and Neoclassical Styles in Architecture 956BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSAcademies and Academy Exhibitions 924THE OBJECT SPEAKSRaft of the "Medusa" 946A CLOSER LOOKGeorgian Silver 919ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREIron as a Building Material 926TECHNIQUELithography 952 CHAPTER 30 MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY ART IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 961EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES IN THE MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY 962FRENCH ACADEMIC ARCHITECTURE AND ART 962Academic Architecture 963Academic Painting and Sculpture 964EARLY PHOTOGRAPHY IN EUROPE AND THE UNITED STATES 967THE BEGINNINGS OF THE AVANT GARDE: REALISM AND BEYOND 971Realism and Revolution 971The Painter of Modern Life: Manet 976Responses to Realism Beyond France 979IMPRESSIONISM 984The Landscape 984The Figure 987Modern Life 989LATE NINETEENTH-CENTURY ART AND THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERNISM 991Post-Impressionism 992Late Nineteenth-Century Art in Britain 997Symbolism 1001Late Nineteenth-Century French Sculpture 1003Art Nouveau 1004Cezanne and the Beginnings of Modernism 1007THE ORIGINS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE 1009Technology and Structure 1009The Chicago School of Architecture 1011BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Snake Charmer 966The Mass Dissemination of Art 974Art on Trial in 1877 999THE OBJECT SPEAKSModern Artists and World Cultures 994A CLOSER LOOKManet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergere 980ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREThe City Park 1014TECHNIQUEThe Photographic Process 970 CHAPTER 31 MODERN ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS, 1900-1950 1017EUROPE AND AMERICA IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY 1018EARLY MODERN ART IN EUROPE 1019The Fauves: Wild Beasts of Color 1019Picasso, Primitivism, and the Coming of Cubism 1021The Bridge and Primitivism 1026Independent Expressionists 1028Spiritualism of the Blue Rider 1029Extensions of Cubism 1031Toward Abstraction in Sculpture 1035Dada: Questioning Art Itself 1036MODERNIST TENDENCIES IN AMERICA 1040The Ashcan School 1040Stieglitz and the "291" Gallery 1041The Armory Show and Home-Grown Modernism 1042EARLY MODERN ARCHITECTURE 1043European Modernism 1045American Modern Architecture 1046ART BETWEEN THE WARS IN EUROPE 1048Utilitarian Art Forms in Russia 1048Rationalism in the Netherlands 1052Bauhaus Art in Germany 1054Surrealists Rearrange Our Minds 1056Unit One in England 1060MODERN ART IN THE AMERICAS BETWEEN THE WARS 1061The Harlem Renaissance 1061Rural America 1065Canada 1067Mexico 1068Brazil 1070Cuba 1071POSTWAR ART IN EUROPE AND THE AMERICAS 1071Figural Responses and Art Informel in EuropeABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM 1073The Center Shifts: Postwar Art in New York 1073The Formative Phase 1074Jackson Pollock and Action Painting 1075Color Field Painting 1079Sculpture of the New York School 1081BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSSuppression of the Avant-Garde in Nazi Germany 1055Federal Patronage for American Art During the Depression 1066THE OBJECT SPEAKSGuernica 1062A CLOSER LOOKPortrait of a German Officer 1044ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTUREThe Skyscraper 1050The International Style 1057 CHAPTER 32 THE INTERNATIONAL SCENE SINCE 1950 1083THE WORLD SINCE THE 1950S 1084The Art World Since the 1950s 1084THE EXPANDING ART WORLD 1084Assemblage 1084Happenings and Performance Art 1085Photography 1089Pop Art 1090THE DEMATERIALIZATION OF THE ART OBJECT 1094Minimalism 1094Conceptual and Performance Art 1095Process Art 1097Feminism and Art 1099Earthworks and Site-Specific Sculpture 1102ARCHITECTURE: MIDCENTURY MODERNISM TO POSTMODERNISM 1104Midcentury Modernist Architecture 1104Postmodern Architecture 1105POSTMODERNISM 1106Painting 1106Postmodernism and Gender 1109Postmodernism, Race and Ethnicity 1111Sculpture 1112ART, ACTIVISM, AND CONTROVERSY: THE NINETIES 1114The Culture Wars 1115Activist Art 1117Postcolonial Discourse 1121High Tech and Deconstructive Architecture 1123Video and Film 1125GLOBALISM: INTO THE NEW MILLENNIUM 1126Art and Technology 1127Art and Ambiguous Identities 1128BOXESART AND ITS CONTEXTSThe Guerrilla Girls 1108Controversies Over Public Funding for the Arts 1120THE OBJECT SPEAKSThe Dinner Party 1100A CLOSER LOOKMartin Puryear, Plenty's Boast, 1994-1995 1098 CONTEMPORARY WORLD MAP 1136GLOSSARY 1137 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1146CREDITS 1158 INDEX 1163

Promotional Information

This fourth edition of Art History is the essential guide to art from prehistory to the present day. Lavishly illustrated with numerous student-friendly features Stokstad and Cothren's book provides a complete and vibrant picture of art and its historical impact on the world.

About the Author

Marilyn Stokstad, teacher, art historian, and museum curator, has been a leader in her field for decades and has served as president of the College Art Association and the International Center of Medieval Art. In 2002, she was awarded the lifetime achievement award from the National Women's Caucus for Art. In 1997, she was awarded the Governor's Arts Award as Kansas Art Educator of the Year and an honorary degree of doctor of humane letters by Carleton College. She is Judith Harris Murphy Distinguished Professor Emerita at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. She has also served in various leadership capacities at the University's Spencer Museum of Art and is Consultative Curator of Medieval Art at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City, Missouri Michael W. Cothren is Scheuer Family Professor of Humanities at Swarthmore College, where he has also served as Art Department Chair, Coordinator of Medieval Studies, and Divisional Chair of the Humanities. Since arriving at Swarthmore in 1978, he has taught specialized courses on Medieval, Roman, and Islamic art and architecture, as well as seminars on visual narrative and on theory and method, but he particularly enjoys teaching the survey to Swarthmore beginners. His research and publications focus on French Gothic art and architecture, most recently in a book on the stained glass of Beauvais Cathedral entitled Picturing the Celestial City. Michael is a consultative curator at the Glencairn Museum in Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania. He has served on the board of the International Center of Medieval Art and as President both of the American Committee of the International Corpus Vitrearum and of his local school board. When not teaching, writing, or pursuing art historical research, you can finding him hiking in the red rocks around Sedona, Arizona.


A new eight-pound entry in the one-volume history-of-art battle of the titans, this title competes directly with Gardner's Art Through the Ages (1926; 10th ed., 1996), Janson's History of Art (1962; 5th ed., 1995), Hartt's Art: A History (1976; 4th ed. 1993), and Honour and Fleming's The Visual Arts: A History (1982; 4th ed., 1995). Each comes with hundreds of illustrations of wildly varying quality-Stokstad's are mostly color, mostly adequate-and each attempts to combine the factual density requirements of a survey course textbook with attractive writing and narrative. In addition, at least in the recent editions, each aims to be "inclusive," discussing women and minority artists to some degree. Distinguished art historian Stokstad (Univ. of Kansas) and her coauthors, mostly colleagues, have done a creditable job. Acknowledging straight off that students today lack a deep knowledge of cultural history, Stokstad aims to be "user-friendly," and her book comes replete with a computer-like "starter kit" of definitions, explanatory text boxes on techniques, and some very good explicatory line drawings, usually architectural. Of the five competitors, four are published by Abrams and all are priced within five dollars of one another. Gardner is much more column after column of text, with little relief. Hartt, a Renaissance scholar, and Honour and Fleming, specialists in the Baroque, write with personal voices; Stokstad, a medievalist, also has a pleasant style. This reviewer recommends that libraries stock Honour and Fleming for their excellent writing and clear art historical point of view and Stockstad's work, which is well written, achieves a good balance of narrative and facts, and is the most inclusive. One caveat: The review copy of Stokstad had broken from its casing before arrival.-Jack Perry Brown, Art Inst. of Chicago Lib.

Destined to establish itself as a modern classic, this hugely informative, wholly enjoyable global history of art from prehistoric times to the present views art as a fundamental, inextricable vehicle for the human spirit. Although Western visual art and architecture receive the most attention, there is also extensive coverage of India, China, Japan, Africa, Islamic art and Pacific cultures. Few texts so wide-rangingly connect the artistic output of each period to the artists' lives, sources of funding and historical, social and political context. The 1625 stunning illustrations (761 in color) are unrivaled in their adventurous selection and quality by any book of this type. Time lines chart parallel developments across cultures and civilizations; inserts spotlight literary and intellectual trends and artists' techniques. Stokstad, art history professor at the University of Kansas, has produced both a college text and a layperson's guide that is more fun than H.W. Janson's standard History of Art, and more multicultural. (Feb.)

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