This is the leading text for courses in clinical phonology-thoroughly revised and updated to include the most current and up-to-date information in the field. Even the newly added subtitle, Speech Sound Disorders in Children, reflects recent changes in the field, including new terminology. This classic text does not prescribe a single approach to phonological disorders but rather presents an eclectic perspective on the nature, assessment, and treatment of this communication impairment. The addition of a third author, Peter Flipsen Jr., a highly-recognized scholar in the area of clinical phonology, brings important, new information for readers and fresh perspectives to the text. Among the many highlights and special features of the sixth edition are: An entire section devoted to the classification of speech sound disorders; The latest information on Childhood Apraxia of Speech, including a detailed discussion of the 2007 ASHA position statement; A revised and updated comprehensive chapter on Normal Development; A full section on measuring clinical change set within the context of evidence-based practice; An outstanding summary of phonological acquisition information written by leading researcher in this area, Sharynne McLeod; Comprehensive coverage of dialects and phonologic characteristics of speakers with first languages other than English, prepared by leading authorities in this area, Brian Goldstein and Aquiles Iglesias; A completely updated chapter on phonological awareness, co-authored by Laura Justice, Gail Gillon, and C. Melanie Schuele; A fully comprehensive and current review of etiological variables, thorough discussion of the assessment of phonologic disorders, and an updated review of broad-based intervention methodologies; and every chapter features introductions, summaries, charts, and graphs to guide learning and aid students' comprehension. The sixth edition of Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Speech Sound Disorders in Children proves once again its "classic" status, and its rightful place on every speech, language, and hearing clinician's bookshelf.
Preface xiIntroduction xiii 1 Normal Aspects of ArticulationIntroduction 1Structure of Language 1Fundamentals of Articulatory Phonetics 6Coarticulation: Interactions among Sounds in Context 35Aerodynamic Considerations in Speech Production 41Acoustic Considerations of Speech 44Sensory Information in Speech Production 46Generative Phonology 47Optimality Theory 54Which Phonological Theory to Select? 54Summary of Levels of Organization of Speech 55Concluding Note on Implications for Speech Acquisition 57Questions for Chapter 1 59 2 Early Phonological Development 63Models of Phonological Development: The Child as an Active Learner 63Infant Perception: Breaking into the Code 72Infant Production: Interaction of Maturation and Experience 78The Transition Period: From Babble to Speech 84Individual Differences: Profile of Two 1-Year-Old Girls 90Systematization and Reorganization: From Word to Segment 92Linguistic Perception beyond the Transition Period: Representing Speech Sounds 93Questions for Chapter 2 98 3 Later Phonological Development 105Establishing Group Norms: Large-Scale Studies 106Phonological Processes: Systematicity in Production Errors 110Profiling the Preschool Child: Individual Differences Revisited 118Development of Perception beyond Early Childhood: Understanding Running Speech 124Production in the School-Age Child: Continuing Change 128Questions for Chapter 3 135 4 Etiology/Factors Related to Phonologic Disorders 139Introduction 139Structure and Function of the Speech and Hearing Mechanisms 141Motor Abilities 164Oral Myofunctional Disorders/Tongue Thrust 166Neuromotor Disorders 171Cognitive-Linguistic Factors 176Psychosocial Factors 185Conclusion 192Questions for Chapter 4 192 5 Phonological Assessment Procedures 201Phonological Sampling 201Screening for Phonological Disorders 202Comprehensive Phonological Assessment: Assessment Battery 205Related Assessment Procedures 224Determining the Need for Intervention 232Target Behavior Selection 249Other Factors to Consider in Case Selection-Intervention Decisions 255Case Study 258Assessment: Interpretation 261Questions for Chapter 5 263 6 Remediation Procedures 268Basic Considerations 268Making Progress in Therapy: Generalization 275Questions for Chapter 6 289 7 Treatment Approaches 292Introduction 292Treatment Continuum 293Motor Learning Principles 294Teaching Sounds: Establishment of Target Behaviors 295Beyond Teaching Sounds: Treatment Approaches with a Motor Emphasis 304Linguistic-Based Approaches to Intervention 315Oral-Motor Activities as Part of Articulation Instruction 333Intervention for Children with Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia (DVD) 335Case Study 340Intervention Recommendations 340Questions for Chapter 7 344 8 Language and Dialectal Variations 348Introduction 348Dialect 348Characteristics of American English Dialects 351Spanish 358Asian Languages 360Phonological Development in Bilingual Children 362Assessment Considerations for Children from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations 364Summary 370Questions for Chapter 8 371 9 Phonological Awareness: Description, Assessment, and Intervention 376Introduction 376What Is Phonological Awareness? 376Phonological Awareness as Literacy Development 378The Development of Phonological Awareness 379Phonological Awareness and Reading 384Phonological Awareness and Disorders of Speech Production 386Assessment 388Intervention 395Questions for Chapter 9 402Appendix 407Author Index 413Subject Index 425