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Automated Lighting


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Product Details

Table of Contents

SECTION 1: Introduction to Automated Lighting 1

CHAPTER 1: Automated Lighting in the Third Millennium

CHAPTER 2: The Foundation of the Automated Lighting Industry

The Genesis of the Automated Lighting Industry


"If We Can Make It Change Color . . ."

The Black Hole

For Sale: Automated Lighting

Sue Me, Sue You Blues

The Future of Automated Lighting

CHAPTER 3: Automated Lighting Systems

Systems Overview

Rigging Systems

Aluminum Structures

Theatrical Rigging

Rigging Hardware

Power Distribution Systems

Disconnect Switch

Feeder Cable

Distribution Panels and Portable Power Distribution Units (PPDUs) 1Overcurrent Protection


Branch Circuits

Wire Gauges

Voltage Drop


Worldwide Electrical Safety and Wiring Codes


Data Distribution Systems

Data Cables

Data Splitters

Data Amplifiers

Data Converters

Data Terminators

A/B Switches

Data Connectors

Control Systems

Automated Lighting Controllers

Automated Lighting Consoles

PC-Based Controllers

Dedicated Controllers

Playback Units

Remote Focus Units

Preset Stations

Media Servers

Redundant Backup Systems


Electrical Systems

Electronics Systems

Electromechanical Systems

Mechanical Systems Optical Systems

Communications Systems

SECTION 2: Electricity and Electronics

CHAPTER 4: DC Electricity

The Flow of Electrons

The Relative Size of Electrons

The Electron Drift Theory


Conductive Properties of Materials Current Convention

Voltage, Current, and Resistance

Water and Electricity-Bad Mix, Good Analogy

The DC Circuit Units of Measure-Current, Voltage, Resistance, Power

The Resistor Color Code

Resistor Wattage

Series Resistance

Parallel Resistance

Series/Parallel Resistance

Ohm's Law

Practice Problems

DC Power

Practice Problems

CHAPTER FIVE: Electricity and Magnetism

Magnetic Lines of Flux

Electromagnetic Induction

Inducing Current

Alternating Current

CHAPTER SIX: AC Electricity

The Alternating Current Generator

Peak Voltage

RMS Voltage

The Inductor

The Capacitor

Phase Relationships


The Transformer

AC Power

Power Factor

Three-Phase Power

The Three-Phase Delta-Wye Configuration

Three-Phase Wye Connections

The Three-Phase Delta-Delta Configuration

Electrical Safety

Drugs and Alcohol

CHAPTER SEVEN: Power Supplies

The Diode

Half-Wave Rectification

Full-Wave Rectification

The Linear Power Supply

Switched-Mode Power Supplies

Power Supplies for Arc Lamps

The Magnetic Ballast Power Supply

Electronic Switching Power Supply for Gas Discharge Lamps

Advantages of a Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies

Disadvantages of Magnetic Ballast Power Supplies

Advantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies

Disadvantages of Electronic Switching Power Supplies

CHAPTER EIGHT: Overcurrent and Overvoltage Protection


Circuit Breakers

Metal Oxide Varistor (MOVs)

CHAPTER NINE: Digital Electronics

Binary Numbering

Binary Offset

Hexadecimal Numbering

Digital Electronics

Electronic Switching

Data Transmission

CHAPTER TEN: Computer Architecture



Input/Output Ports

The System Bus

Microprocessor Architecture

Execution of a Cue

SECTION THREE: Electro-Mechanical and Mechanical Systems

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Electro-Mechanical Systems

Stepper Motors

Hybrid Stepper Motors

Single Phase Excitation Mode

Dual Phase Excitation Mode

Half Step Excitation



Stepper Motor Control Systems

Position Sensing and Encoding

The Mechanical Stop

Optical Sensing

Hall Effect Sensors

Focus Correction

Quadrature Encoding

Absolute Encoding


Fan Types

Fan Cleaning and Maintenance

CHAPTER TWELVE: Mechanical Systems



Stainless Steel




Fused Quartz

Optical glass

Metal Finishes


Thread Standards

Preventing Vibrational Loosening



SECTION FOUR: Optical Systems

Chapter Thirteen: Lamp Technology

Incandescent Lamps


Gas Fill

Halogen Lamps

Discharge Lamps

Discharge Lamp Construction

Starting a Discharge Lamp

The Effects of Lamp Strikes

Hot Restrike Lamps

Testing Discharge Lamps


Plasma Lamps

Color Temperature

Luminous Efficacy

Spectral Power Distribution

Color Rendering Index


Lumen Maintenance

Lamp Life Ratings

Lamp Hazards

Chapter Fourteen: The Optical Path

Specular Reflection

Reflector Geometry

The Elliptical Reflector

The Spherical Reflector

Reflector Materials

Infrared Filters

Mechanical Dimming

Optical Thin-Film Filters

The Deposition Process

Thin-Film Interference

Filter Types

Color Selection


Color Wheels

Color Combining

Subtractive Color Mixing

Additive Color Mixing


Metal Gobos

Glass Gobos

Laser Ablation

Installation Orientation

Front Surface Mirrors

Anti-Reflective Coatings



Spherical Aberrations

Chromatic Aberration

SECTION FIVE: Networking and Communications

Chapter Fifteen: The Channel Count Explosion

Cable Management in a 0-10V World

Taming the Cable Beast

The Channel Count Explosion

State-of-the-Art Protocols

Chapter Sixteen: DMX512 and DMX512-A

The DMX512 Physical Layer

Data Cable

DMX512 Over CAT

DMX512 Connectors


Building a Data Network

DMX512-A versus DMX5

DMX512-A Data Protocol

Reset Sequence

Alternate Start Codes

Proprietary ASCs

Data Slot Format

Refresh Rate

Enhanced Function Topologies

Enhanced Function 1

Enhanced Function 2

Enhanced Function 3

Enhanced Function 4

Bi-directional Distribution Amplifiers/Return Data Combiners



Chapter Seventeen: Remote Device Management (RDM)

The RDM Physical Layer

RDM Packet Format

The RDM Discovery Process

RDM Parameter Messages

Network Management Messages

Status Collection Messages

RDM Information Messages

Product Information Messages

DMX512 Setup Messages

Sensor Parameter Messages

Power/Lamp Setting Parameter Messages

Display Setting Parameter Messages

Device Configuration Parameter Messages

Device Control Parameter Messages

Chapter Eighteen: Architecture for Control Networks (ACN)

The ACN Suite of Protocols

ACN Elements

Device Description Language

Device Management Protocol

Session Data Transport

The ACN Transport

Network Media

Streaming DMX512 Over ACN

SECTION SIX: Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Chapter Nineteen: Tools of the Trade

Tools for the Task



Troubleshooting in the Field

Voltmeter Specifications

Volt Meter Category Ratings

True RMS Meters

V-Rated Tools

Chapter Twenty: Preventive Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Common Sources of Problems: Heat, Gravity, Age

Preventive Maintenance

Cleaning Automated Lighting Components



Sample List of Recommended Spare Parts

Troubleshooting Procedures

Common Failures

Motor Drive Chips

Switch-Mode Power Supplies

Printed Circuits Boards

Power Factor Correction Capacitors





SECTION SEVEN: Convergence of Lighting and Video

Chapter Twenty-One: Convergence of Lighting and Video

The Digital Mirror Device

Digital Light Processing and LEDs

Liquid Crystal Display Projectors

Perceived Brightness

Lamp Technology and Projection

The UHP Lamp


Chapter Twenty-Two: Lighting Design

Design Goals


Focusing Attention

Lighting for Video


Creating Depth

Aesthetics and Mood

3-Point Lighting

Toning a 3-point Lighting System

Multi-Point Lighting

Calculating Illuminance

Target Illuminance

Color Temperature and Green/Magenta Balance

Finishing the Lighting Plot

Color Wash

Image and Beam Projection

Chapter Twenty-Three: Lighting Design software

Computer Aided Design

File Formats

CAD Libraries

Data and Attributes

Lighting Paperwork




Offline Editors

SECTION EIGHT: Automated Lighting Programming

Chapter Twenty-Four: Automated Lighting Programming

The Programming Approach

Pre-show Preparation

Previz and Off-Line Editing

Backing Up

On-Site Preparation

The Linear Fader Model Versus the Real World Model

Patching Fixtures


Preparing Fixture Groups

Preparing Palettes or Presets

Preset Focus Positions

Program Blocking



Laying Out the Cues on the Console

Programming Cues

Timing of Cues

Mark Cues or Move in Black

Blocking Cues

Point Cues


Perfecting the Craft



About the Author

Richard Cadena is the author of "Focus on Lighting Technology," technical editor for PLASA, former editor of Pro Lights and Staging News magazine, an Authorized WYSIWYG Trainer, and 20 year veteran of the entertainment lighting industry including stints with two of the world's largest automated lighting manufacturers. He has a background in electrical engineering and electronics, and he is a freelance lighting designer with a portfolio of several major lighting designs and installations and is proficient in WYSIWYG, LD Assistant, and Vectorworks. He has been an instructor of classes in automated lighting technology with the Show Training Network, and a moderator of several lighting panels and seminars at Pro Production and Inspiration trade shows.

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