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Bacteria in Nature
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Table of Contents

1 The Scientific Study of Bacteria, 1780-1980.- How Were the Activities of Bacteria Recognized?.- Steps toward a Science of Bacteriology.- Constancy of Form.- Spontaneous Generation.- The Process of Fermentation.- Pasteur and Fermentation.- Ferments and Enzymes.- The Growth of Medical Bacteriology.- Bacteria and Disease.- Pure Cultures and Mixed Cultures.- Public Health Aspects.- Bacteria and the Natural Cycles.- Isolates from Nature.- Nitrifiers.- Nitrogen Fixation.- Autotrophic Sulfur Bacteria.- Photosynthetic Bacteria.- Chemical Transformations Carried Out by Bacteria.- Oxidations.- Anaerobic Fermentations.- Bacterial Metabolism and the Unity of Biochemistry.- Biochemical Variation.- Genetic Variation.- Levels of Understanding.- From Nature to the Laboratory.- What about Bacterial Species?.- The Impact of Genetics.- Adaptation-Genotype or Phenotype?.- Molecular Biology.- Bacterial Growth.- Present and Future.- References.- 2 Anaerobic Biotransformations of Organic Matter.- Abiotic Transformations.- Synthesis.- Evolution of Metabolism.- The Advent of Dioxygen.- Human Appreciation of Anaerobiosis.- Pasteur's Great Contributions.- Development of Biochemistry in Relation to Anaerobic Transformations.- Hydration and Dehydrogenation.- Types of Fermentation of Carbohydrates.- Lactacidigenesis.- Ethanolic Fermentation.- Acetigenic Fermentation.- Succinigenic and Propionigenic Fermentations.- Butyrigenic Fermentation.- Mixed Product Fermentations.- Development of Anaerobic Methods.- Ecological Considerations.- The Liquid Enrichment Method.- The Solid Medium Enrichment Method.- Gradients in Anaerobiosis-the Redox Potential.- Factors Influencing Redox Potential.- Redox Potentials in the Organism.- Categories of Organismic Relationships to Dioxygen.- Methanogenic Fermentations.- Modern Anaerobic Habitats: The Alimentary Tracts of Animals.- The Competition Model.- The Cooperation Model.- The Combined Competition-Cooperation Model.- Continuous Fermentation.- The Rumen.- Modern Nonalimentary Anaerobic Habitats.- Aquatic Habitats.- Soils and Sediments.- Anaerobic Digestors.- Digestion of Plant Cell Walls.- Transformations of Nitrogenous Materials.- Ultimate Events in Anaerobic Transformations.- Soluble Nutrients in Anaerobic Transformations.- Leakage of Metabolites from Anaerobic Digesters of Wall Materials.- Conclusion.- References.- 3 The Mineralization of Organic Materials under Aerobic Conditions.- History.- Chemistry.- Regulation.- The Bacteria.- Stages of Mineralization.- Pathway Structure.- Genetic Organization.- The Chromosome.- Plasmids.- Prospects and Trends in Research.- Pathways.- Xenobiotic Compounds as Pollutants.- Mixed Cultures.- Conclusions.- References.- 4 Stages in the Recognition of Bacteria Using Light as a Source of Energy.- The Studies of Engelmann on the Responses of Green Algae and of Purple Bacteria to Light.- Winogradsky's Work on the Sulfur Bacteria.- The Contribution of Molisch to the Knowledge of the Purple Bacteria.- Progress in the Study of the Sulfur Bacteria.- The Work of Buder with Purple Sulfur Bacteria.- Van Niel's Broadened Concept of Photosynthesis.- Oxygenic and Anoxygenic Photosynthesis: Solutions to Classical Problems.- Structure of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Purple and Green Bacteria.- Purple Bacteria.- Green Bacteria.- Conclusion.- References.- 5 Oxygenic Photosynthesis in Prokaryotes.- From Blue-Green Algae to Cyanobacteria.- History of the Relationship between Blue-Green Algae and Bacteria.- Modern Methods for Establishment of Affinities among Organisms.- Recognition as Prokaryotae.- Discovery of the Role of Photosynthetic Pigments and Electron Carriers in Cyanobacteria.- Accessory Pigments.- Mechanisms of Energy Transfer.- Existence of Two Photosystems.- Other Components of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis.- Fractionation of Photosynthetic Function.- Photosynthetic Mutants of Cyanobacteria.- Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis.- Photosynthetic Structures in Cyanobacteria.- Thylakoids.- Phycobilisomes.- Nutritional Adaptations in the Photosynthetic Apparatus.- Light Quality and Quantity.- Temperature Effects.- Other Nutritional Adaptations.- Facultative Anoxygenic Photosynthesis.- Conclusions.- References.- 6 Consumption of Atmospheric Nitrogen.- Early Observations.- The Ancient Roots.- Beginnings of Scientific Agriculture.- Early Controversies Regarding the Sources of Plant Nitrogen.- Advances Prior to 1940.- Methodological Problems.- Development of an Ecological Understanding.- Advent of Isotopic Techniques.- Discovery of New N2-fixing Organisms.- Expansion of Ecological Understanding.- Development of a Biochemical Understanding.- Advent of the Acetylene Reduction Technique.- Further Advances in Ecological Understanding.- Current Perspectives and Future Prospects.- References.- 7 The Position of Bacteria and Their Products in Food Webs.- Concepts.- Bacterial Interactions in Food Webs.- Primary Producers.- Decomposers.- Bacteria as Predators and Prey.- Bacteria as Mutualistic, Commensal, or Parasitic Symbionts.- Syntrophy.- Antibiosis.- Conclusion.- References.- 8 A Comparison of the Roles of Bacteria and Fungi.- Significance of Growth Habit.- Unicellular and Filamentous Forms.- Translocation.- Growth Pattern of Mycelial Colonies.- Complex Structures.- Attachment and Penetration.- Physiological Aspects.- General.- Maximal Activity Rates.- Copiotrophs and Oligotrophs.- Temperature.- Hydrogen Ion Concentration.- Water Stress.- Genetics.- Some Important Microbial Ecosystems.- Soil.- Lichens.- Associations between Microbes and Higher Organisms.- Conclusions.- References.

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