Introduction to Biotechnology Learning Objectives What Is Biotechnology? Animal Biotechnology Agricultural Biotechnology Medical Biotechnology Industrial Biotechnology Environmental Biotechnology Other Emerging Fields of Biotechnology History of Biotechnology Human Genome Project Major Scientific Discoveries in Biotechnology Biotechnology as the Science of Integration Bio-Revolution Ethical and Regulatory Issues in Biotechnology Future of Biotechnology Problems Assignment Online Resources References and Further Reading Genes and Genomics Learning Objectives Introduction Cell as the Building Block of Life Classification of Cells Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Extracellular Organization Cell Membrane Cell Capsule Flagella Intracellular Organization Macromolecules Genes and Genetics Cell Division DNA Replication DNA Interactions with Proteins DNA-Modifying Enzymes DNA Methylation DNA Mutation Tools of Biotechnology Problems Assignment References and Further Reading Proteins and Proteomics Learning Objectives Introduction Significance of Proteins Protein Biosynthesis Protein Structure Protein Folding Protein Modification Protein Transport Protein Dysfunction and Degradation Regulation of Protein Synthesis Regulatory Protein Methods for Protein Analysis Protein Purification Tools of Proteomics Problems Assignment References and Further Reading Recombinant DNA Technology Learning Objectives Introduction Making of Recombinant DNA Significance of Recombinant DNA Technology Role of Restriction Enzymes in rDNA Technology Steps in Gene Cloning Synthesis of Complete Gene Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gene Cloning Significance of Vectors in Recombinant DNA Technology Classification of Vectors Integration of the DNA Insert into the Vector Introduction of the Recombinant DNA into the Suitable Host Increased Competence of E. Coli by CaCl2 Treatment Infection by Recombinant DNAs Packaged as Virions Selection of Recombinant Clones Identification of Clones Having Recombinant DNAs Selection of Clone Containing a Specific DNA Insert Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology DNA Sequencing Microarrays DNA Chips Isolation of Desired DNA cDNA Library Preparation of cDNA Genomic Library DNA Libraries Chemical Synthesis Gene Applications of Synthetic Oligonucleotides Problems Assignments References and Further Reading Microbial Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Structural Organization of Microbes Microbial Metabolism Microbial Growth Microbial Genetics Genetic Recombination in Bacteria Transposable Genetic Elements Use of E. Coli in Microbial Cloning Pathogenic Bacteria Application of Microbes Food Microbiology Microbial Biotechnology Problems References and Further Reading Agricultural Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Plant Breeding Plant Diseases Applications of Molecular and Genetic Tools in Agriculture Herbicide-Tolerant Plants Pigmentation in Transgenic Plants Altering the Food Content of Plants Gene Transfer Methods in Plants Target Cells for Gene Transformation Vectors for Gene Transfer Transformation Techniques Using Agrobacterium Glucuronidase Gene Agroinfection and Gene Transfer DNA-Mediated Gene Transfer Electroporation for Gene Transfer Liposome-Mediated Gene Transfer Gene Transformation Using Pollen Application of Transgenic Plants How Safe Are Transgenic Plants? Bioengineered Plants Genetically Modified Maize Terminator Technology Problems Assignment References and Further Reading Animal Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction History of the Use of Animals in Research Drug Testing in Animals Is Mandatory Most Commonly Used Animals in Research Application of Animal Models Animal Models Animal Biotechnology Regulations of Animal Testing Alternatives to Animal Testing Problems Assignment References and Further Reading Environmental Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Factors Affecting the Environment Global Warming Carbon Footprint Destruction of Forests Air Pollution Major Carbon Dioxide Emission Countries Greenhouse Effect Acid Rain Ocean Acidification Health Hazards Due to Pollution Environment Protection by Biotechnology Bioremediation Mycoremediation Wastewater Treatment Pretreatment Phase Screening Phase Sedimentation Phase Secondary Treatment Phase Activated Sludge Filter Beds Biological Aerated Filters Nutrient Removal Nitrogen Removal Phosphorus Removal Disinfection of Wastewater Sludge Disposal Biofuels Biodiesel Biogas Bioalcohols Bioethers Syngas Solid Biofuels Second-Generation Biofuels Third-Generation Biofuels International Biofuel Efforts Future of Biofuels Biodegradable Plastic Biodegradation by Bacteria Oil-Eating Bacteria Biostimulation and Bioaugmentation Bioleaching Single-Cell Protein and Biomass from Waste Vermitechnology Biosorption Bacteria Fungi Algae Genetically Engineered Organisms Problems Debate Field Visit References and Further Reading Medical Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Antibody Production Therapeutic Proteins Stem Cell Transplantation Bioengineered Skin Bioengineered Organ Transplantation Gene Therapy Molecular Diagnostics Artificial Blood Organ Transplant Cloning Questions Assignment References and Further Reading Nanobiotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Nanotechnology Nanobiotechnology Applications of Nanobiotechnology Nanotechnology in the Food Industry Water Pollution and Nanotechnology Research Trends Problems References and Further Reading Product Development in Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Methods of Scientific Inquiry Commercialization of Scientific Discovery Business Plan Biotechnology Product Development Phases of Biotechnology Product Development Biotechnology Entrepreneurship Biotechnology Industry: Facts and Figures Formation of a New Biotechnology Company Successful Bioentrepreneurship Biotechnology Products and Intellectual Property Rights Biotechnology Stock Investment: Pros and Cons Marketing Trends in Biotechnology Role of Regulators in Biotechnology Product Development Certification and Accreditation Problems References and Further Reading Industrial Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Fermenter or Bioreactor Principle of Fermentation Production of Biomolecules Using Fermenter Technology Development Process of Microbial Products Upstream Bioprocess Downstream Bioprocess Bioprocess Automation Industrial Application of Microbes Industrial Production of Healthcare Products Problems References and Further Reading Ethics in Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Genetically Modified Foods and Plants Use of Animals as Experimental Models Use of Humans as Experimental Models Xenotransplantation Genetic Screening Biometrics DNA Fingerprinting Organ Donation and Transplantation Euthanasia Neuroethics Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryonic Stem Cell Research Questions Assignments References and Further Reading Careers in Biotechnology Learning Objectives Introduction Education and Investment in Biotechnology Research and Development in Biotechnology Biotechnology Industry and Products Biotechnology Status in the United States Career Opportunities in Biotechnology Entry-Level Job Positions in Biotechnology Administration Which Job Is Good For Me? Why Are R&D Jobs the Most Challenging? Salary and Incentives in Biotechnology Problems Assignments Field Visit References and Further Reading Laboratory Tutorials Laboratory Experiments Laboratory Safety Good Laboratory Practices for Biotechnology Labs General Laboratory Techniques General Principles of Animal Handling Animal Anesthesia Animal Histology Blood Collection in Animals Histology and Microscopy Separation Techniques Microbiology Techniques Biochemistry Techniques Molecular Techniques Genetic Techniques Agricultural Biotechnology Microbial Biotechnology References
Firdos Alam Khan is a professor and chairperson of the School of Life Sciences, Manipal University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE). He earned his PhD from Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India, in 1997. He has more than 21 years of research and teaching experience in various domains of biotechnology. His area of expertise includes stem cell technology and neuroscience. He has written numerous articles in various national and international journals in the areas of neuroscience, neuropharmcology, and stem cell biology, and has been an editorial board member of the EC Microbiology and MOJ Immunology scientific journals.
"Dr. Khan's Biotechnology Fundamentals serves as a great introduction to the field; presenting the various topics with clear definitions along with real-world examples and applications. In this second edition, Dr. Khan has included an introduction to several new exciting interdisciplinary areas such as biorobotics, biomimetics and epigenetics. These are all relatively new areas in biotechnology that show great promise and are exciting areas to explore." -Alexandra Gorgevska, Palm Beach State College, Lake Worth, Florida, USA