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Blasting Principles for Open Pit Mining [2 vol set]


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Table of Contents

Volume 1

1. An Historical Perspective
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Mine design factors
1.3. The steam shovel
1.4. Haulage
1.5. Drilling and blasting
1.6. Production statistics
1.7. Production strategy then and now
References and bibliography

2. The Fragmentation System Concept
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Mine-mill fragmentation systems
2.3. The energy required in fragmentation
2.4. Fragmentation evaluation
2.5. Optimum fragmentation curves
2.6. Fragmentation systems engineering in practice
2.7. Summary
References and bibliography

3. Explosives as a Source of Fragmentation Energy
3.1. Explosive power
3.2. Pressure-volume curves
3.3. Explosive strength
3.4. Energy use
3.5. Summary
References and bibliography

4. Preliminary Blast Design Guidelines
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Blast design rationale
4.3. Ratios for initial design
4.4. Ratio-based blast design example
4.5. The Ash design standards
4.6. Determination of KB
4.7. Simulation of different design alternatives
4.8. Rock structure and blast pattern design
4.9. Measure-while-drilling systems
4.10. Rock blastability
4.11. Fragmentation prediction
References and bibliography

5. Drilling Patterns and Hole Sequencing
5.1. Blast round terminology
5.2. Energy coverage
5.3. The influence of face shape
5.4. One and two row blasts
5.5. Size and shape of blasts
5.6. Some sequencing principles
References and bibliography

6. Sinking Cut Design
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Bench blasting zone
6.3. The shallow zone
6.4. The transition region
6.5. Sinking cut example
References and bibliography

7. Bulk Blasting Agents
7.1. Introduction
7.2. ANFO
7.3. Aluminized ANFO
7.4. Light ANFO
7.5. Water gels/slurries
7.6. Emulsions
7.7. Heavy ANFO
References and bibliography

8. Initiation Systems
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Initiation and propagation of the detonation front
8.3. Primers and boosters
8.4. The end initiation of explosive columns
8.5. The side initiation of explosives
8.6. Initiating devices
8.7. Blast sequencing
8.8. Initiation example
References and bibliography

9. Environmental Effects
9.1. Ground motion
9.2. Airblast
9.3. Flyrock
References and bibliography

10. Perimeter Blasting
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Tailoring the energy of explosives
10.3. Special damage control techniques
10.4. Perimeter control design approaches
References and bibliography

Volume 2

11. Fundamentals of Explosives
11.1. Design of explosives
11.2. A simplified calculation of blasthole conditions
11.3. Detailed analysis of explosion parameters
References and bibliography

12. Blasting in the Absence of a Free Surface
12.1. Blasting with a long cylindrical charge
12.2. Blasting with a spherical charge
References and bibliography

13. The Effect of the Shock Wave
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Wave and particle velocity
13.3. Wave energy and momentum
13.4. Spalling
13.5. Assistance/retardation of crack growth
References and bibliography

14. Attenuation
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Plain wave damping in a continuous bar
14.3. Plain wave damping in a discontinuous bar
14.4. Wave attenuation and the 'Q' factor
14.5. Waveform frequency analysis
14.6. Laboratory studies of attenuation
References and bibliography

15. Spherical Charges
15.1. Introduction
15.2. The field studies
15.3. A practical demonstration of some key concepts
15.4. Single shot results in lithonia granite
15.5. Multiple shot results in lithonia granite
15.6. Effect of explosive type
15.7. Application to other rock types
References and bibliography

16. Cylindrical Charges
16.1. Introduction
16.2. The basic string charge model
16.3. The Starfield seed waveform approach
16.4. Field confirmation of the seed waveform approach
16.5. The spherical charge model
16.6. The effect of subdrilling on bench toe breakage
References and bibliography

17. Decoupling
17.1. Basic concept
17.2. USBM field decoupling experiments
17.3. THe USBM predictive model
17.4. A power-law based predictive model
17.5. Exponential law-based radial strain model
17.6. Favreau-based radial strain model
17.7. Decoupling experiments using cylindrical charges
References and bibliography

18. Heave
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Basic heave action as captured photographically
18.3. Empirical analysis of heave parameters
18.4. The contribution of the shock wave and gas pressure to heave
18.5. An analytical expression for burden face velocity
18.6. Three-dimensional kinematic model of muckpile formation
18.7.Have modelling using the distinct element code, DMC-Blast
18.8. Heave results using other models
References and bibliography

19. The Basics of Cratering
19.1. Introduction
19.2. The cratering concept presented as a thought-experiment
19.3. Equation development
19.4. Experimental procedure
19.5. Analysis of sample cratering data
19.6. Forward design example (Iron Ore Company)
19.7. Forward design example (Dow Chemical Company)
19.8. Evaluation of a current blasting pattern
19.9. Some cratering test results
19.10. Summary
References and bibliography

20. Hydrodynamic-Based Models
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Fundamentals of hydrodynamics
20.3. The problem statement and modelling assumptions
20.4. The velocity potential
20.5. A single charge in a half space
20.6. Modelling of bench blasting geometries
20.7. The field example
20.8 Conclusion
References and bibliography

21. Selected Russian Contributions
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Explosive properties
21.3. Laboratory properties
21.4. Theoretical extent of blast damage zones
21.5. Observations of blast damage zones
21.6. A blastability index
References and bibliography


About the Author

William Hustrulid studied Minerals Engineering at the University of Minnesota. After obtaining his Ph.D. degree in 1968, his career has included responsible roles in both mining academia and in the mining business itself. He has served as Professor of Mining Engineering at the University of Utah and at the Colorado School of Mines and as a Guest Professor at theTechnical University in LuleAY, Sweden. In addition, he has held mining R&D positions for companies in the USA, Sweden, and the former Republic of Zaire. He is a Member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and a Foreign Member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA). He currently holds the rank of Professor Emeritus at the University of Utah and manages Hustrulid Mining Services in Spokane,Washington.

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