Foreword xi Introduction xv Chapter 1 Building Industry Challenges and Opportunities 1 Global Trends in Supply and Demand 2 Benchmarking Construction Productivity 3 Construction Productivity Metrics 6 Benchmarking Building Performance 8 Converting Inefficiency and Waste into Profit 10 Benchmarking Waste 11 Identifying Business Opportunities 12 Emerging Business Strategies 15 Choosing the Right Tools, Deploying the Right Tool Suites 16 The BIM Value Proposition 19 Process Engineering 20 Thinking Like an Owner 22 Building Performance Metrics 23 New Metrics for Real Property Valuation 23 Chapter 2 BIM Implementation Strategies 27 Leaving the CAD Era Behind 28 A Systems Approach to BIM Implementation 29 Avoiding Ideological Pitfalls 30 Aligning a BIM Implementation Strategy with Technology Trends 32 Assessing Fundamental Risks 33 Fostering a Culture of Information Stewardship 33 Managing Culture Change 35 Using Technology to Build Trust and Mitigate Risk 36 Maintaining Data Exchange Capabilities 37 Assessing Team Capabilities 41 Managing Expectations 42 Measuring Progress toward Strategic Goals 44 Toward a New Business Paradigm 54 Chapter 3 Business Process Reform 57 Managing Innovation Risk 58 The Imperative of Change 59 Innovation Management Strategies 60 The "I" in BIM 62 Business Reform Strategies 63 Industry-wide Reform Efforts 64 Industry Standards and Innovation 66 The Industry Standards Landscape 68 Aligning Business Strategies with Industry Standards 70 Integrating Information Gathering into the Business Process 72 Leadership and Vision 75 Engaging Business Partners 77 Business Process Modeling 78 Business Process Modeling Case Study 82 Managing Change 83 Populating the Building Information Model 87 Chapter 4 BIM-Based Enterprise Workflow 89 BIM Implementation Fundamentals 90 Sidebar: Integrating Data Collection with Business Processes 94 Business Operations and BIM 98 Marketing/Business Development 99 Human Resources 101 Finance 102 Information Technology 104 Operations 105 Workflow Visualization 108 Chapter 5 The Building Life Cycle 111 Life Cycle Views of Building Information 111 The Feasibility, Planning, and Development View 115 The Design and Construction View 116 The Operations and Maintenance View 118 The Ownership and Asset Management View 123 Chapter 6 Building Information Exchange Challenges 129 Sidebar: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom 130 Information Management 131 Sidebar: Case Study: Information Management 134 Information Provenance 135 Information Maturity 137 Sidebar: The Wayback Machine: Archiving the Web 138 Information Content Decay 140 Information Electronic Degradation 140 Information Integrity and Continuity 141 Information Transparency, Accessibility, and Security 143 Information Flow 144 The Life Cycle of Information 146 Stakeholder Views 146 Interoperability 146 Chapter 7 Building Information Exchange Requirements 153 The Big Picture 154 Information Delivery Manuals 154 Defining "Best Case" Business Processes 159 agcXML: Organizing Transactional Information 161 SMARTcodes: Automating the Regulatory Process 162 The Construction Operations Building Information Exchange 163 Specifiers Property Information Exchange (SPIE) 166 Coordination View Information Exchange (CVIE) 168 Chapter 8 The Way Forward 171 Workflow: From Sequential to Parallel Processing 173 Business and Contractual Relationships 176 Evolving Roles and Responsibilities 177 Bibliography 179 Index 183
Dana K. Smith, FAIA, is Executive Director of the buildingSMART alliance, a program of the National Institute of Build-ing Sciences (NIBS), and a Senior Analyst with Cyon Research. He is the founder and former chair of the NIBS Facility Information Council, developer of the U.S. National Computer Aided Design (CAD) Standard and the National Building Information Modeling (BIM) Standard. His efforts to advance the art and science of building have been recognized by numerous honors and accolades, including the 1996 Federal 100 Award, the 1997 NIBS Member Award, and the 2006 CAD Society Leadership Award. MICHAEL TARDIF, Assoc. AIA, CSI, Hon. SDA, is Director of Integrated Project Delivery Systems for Grunley Construction Company in Rockville, Maryland, and a contributing editor to AIArchitect and Construction Project Controls and BIM Report. He is the former director of the Center for Technology and Practice Management of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and the former project manager of the agcXML Project, an initiative funded and executed by the Associated General Contractors of America (AGC) under the auspices of the buildingSMART alliance, one of the first standards-development efforts to support genuine e-commerce in the building industry.