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CCIE Routing and Switching V5.0

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv Part I LAN Switching Chapter 1 Ethernet Basics 3 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 3 Foundation Topics 8 Ethernet Layer 1: Wiring, Speed, and Duplex 8 RJ-45 Pinouts and Category 5 Wiring 8 Autonegotiation, Speed, and Duplex 9 CSMA/CD 10 Collision Domains and Switch Buffering 10 Basic Switch Port Configuration 11 Ethernet Layer 2: Framing and Addressing 14 Types of Ethernet Addresses 16 Ethernet Address Formats 17 Protocol Types and the 802.3 Length Field 18 Switching and Bridging Logic 19 SPAN, RSPAN, and ERSPAN 22 Core Concepts of SPAN, RSPAN, and ERSPAN 23 Restrictions and Conditions 24 Basic SPAN Configuration 26 Complex SPAN Configuration 26 RSPAN Configuration 26 ERSPAN Configuration 27 Virtual Switch System 28 Virtual Switching System 29 VSS Active and VSS Standby Switch 30 Virtual Switch Link 30 Multichassis EtherChannel (MEC) 31 Basic VSS Configuration 31 VSS Verification Procedures 35 IOS-XE 38 Foundation Summary 41 Memory Builders 44 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 44 Definitions 44 Further Reading 45 Chapter 2 Virtual LANs and VLAN Trunking 47 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 47 Foundation Topics 51 Virtual LANs 51 VLAN Configuration 51 Using VLAN Database Mode to Create VLANs 52 Using Configuration Mode to Put Interfaces into VLANs 55 Using Configuration Mode to Create VLANs 56 Modifying the Operational State of VLANs 57 Private VLANs 60 VLAN Trunking: ISL and 802.1Q 69 ISL and 802.1Q Concepts 69 ISL and 802.1Q Configuration 71 Allowed, Active, and Pruned VLANs 76 Trunk Configuration Compatibility 76 Configuring Trunking on Routers 77 802.1Q-in-Q Tunneling 79 VLAN Trunking Protocol 83 VTP Process and Revision Numbers 86 VTP Configuration 89 Normal-Range and Extended-Range VLANs 94 Storing VLAN Configuration 94 Configuring PPPoE 96 Foundation Summary 99 Memory Builders 101 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 101 Definitions 101 Further Reading 101 Chapter 3 Spanning Tree Protocol 103 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 103 Foundation Topics 107 802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol and Improvements 107 Choosing Which Ports Forward: Choosing Root Ports and Designated Ports 109 Electing a Root Switch 110 Determining the Root Port 111 Determining the Designated Port 113 Converging to a New STP Topology 115 Topology Change Notification and Updating the CAM 117 Transitioning from Blocking to Forwarding 119 Per-VLAN Spanning Tree and STP over Trunks 119 STP Configuration and Analysis 124 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol 128 New Port Roles, States and Types, and New Link Types 128 Changes to BPDU Format and Handling 132 Proposal/Agreement Process in RSTP 133 Topology Change Handling in RSTP 136 Rapid Per-VLAN Spanning Tree Plus (RPVST+) 137 Multiple Spanning Trees: IEEE 802.1s 137 MST Principles of Operation 138 Interoperability Between MST and Other STP Versions 141 MST Configuration 144 Protecting and Optimizing STP 148 PortFast Ports 148 Root Guard, BPDU Guard, and BPDU Filter: Protecting Access Ports 149 Protecting Against Unidirectional Link Issues 151 Configuring and Troubleshooting EtherChannels 154 Load Balancing Across Port-Channels 154 Port-Channel Discovery and Configuration 157 Troubleshooting Complex Layer 2 Issues 161 Layer 2 Troubleshooting Process 162 Layer 2 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 163 Troubleshooting Using Cisco Discovery Protocol 163 Troubleshooting Using Link Layer Discovery Protocol 165 Troubleshooting Using Basic Interface Statistics 167 Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol 170 Troubleshooting Trunking 171 Troubleshooting VTP 172 Troubleshooting EtherChannels 174 Approaches to Resolving Layer 2 Issues 175 Foundation Summary 177 Memory Builders 179 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 179 Definitions 179 Further Reading 179 Part II IP Networking Chapter 4 IP Addressing 183 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 183 Foundation Topics 187 IP Operation 187 TCP Operation 187 UDP Operation 188 IP Addressing and Subnetting 188 IP Addressing and Subnetting Review 188 Subnetting a Classful Network Number 189 Comments on Classless Addressing 191 Subnetting Math 192 Dissecting the Component Parts of an IP Address 192 Finding Subnet Numbers and Valid Range of IP Addresses-Binary 193 Decimal Shortcuts to Find the Subnet Number and Valid Range of IP Addresses 194 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Binary 196 Determining All Subnets of a Network-Decimal 198 VLSM Subnet Allocation 200 Route Summarization Concepts 201 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Binary 202 Finding Inclusive Summary Routes-Decimal 203 Finding Exclusive Summary Routes-Binary 204 CIDR, Private Addresses, and NAT 205 Classless Interdomain Routing 206 Private Addressing 207 Network Address Translation 207 Static NAT 209 Dynamic NAT Without PAT 210 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation 211 Dynamic NAT and PAT Configuration 212 IPv6 214 IPv6 Address Format 215 Network Prefix 215 IPv6 Address Types 216 Address Management and Assignment 216 Static Configuration 217 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 217 Stateful DHCPv6 217 Stateless DHCP 218 IPv6 Transition Technologies 218 Dual Stack 218 Tunneling 219 Translation 220 Foundation Summary 221 Memory Builders 225 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 225 Definitions 225 Further Reading 225 Chapter 5 IP Services 227 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 227 Foundation Topics 232 ARP, Proxy ARP, Reverse ARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 232 ARP and Proxy ARP 232 RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP 233 DHCP 234 HSRP, VRRP, and GLBP 236 Network Time Protocol 240 SNMP 241 SNMP Protocol Messages 243 SNMP MIBs 244 SNMP Security 245 Syslog 245 Web Cache Communication Protocol 246 Implementing the Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreement (IP SLA) Feature 249 Implementing NetFlow 250 Implementing Router IP Traffic Export 252 Implementing Cisco IOS Embedded Event Manager 253 Implementing Remote Monitoring 254 Implementing and Using FTP on a Router 255 Implementing a TFTP Server on a Router 256 Implementing Secure Copy Protocol 257 Implementing HTTP and HTTPS Access 257 Implementing Telnet Access 258 Implementing SSH Access 258 Foundation Summary 259 Memory Builders 264 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 264 Definitions 264 Further Reading 264 Part III IP IGP Routing Chapter 6 IP Forwarding (Routing) 267 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 267 Foundation Topics 271 IP Forwarding 271 Process Switching, Fast Switching, and Cisco Express Forwarding 272 Load Sharing with CEF and Related Issues 282 Multilayer Switching 286 MLS Logic 286 Using Routed Ports and Port-channels with MLS 287 MLS Configuration 291 Policy Routing 296 Routing Protocol Changes and Migration 299 Planning the Migration Strategy 300 Activating New IGP While Keeping the Current IGP Intact 300 Verifying New IGP Adjacencies and Working Database Contents 301 Deactivating Current IGP 301 Removing New IGP's Temporary Settings 303 Specifics of Distance-Vector Protocols in IGP Migration 303 Foundation Summary 309 Memory Builders 310 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 310 Definitions 310 Further Reading 310 Chapter 7 RIPv2 and RIPng 313 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 313 Foundation Topics 316 Introduction to Dynamic Routing 316 RIPv2 Basics 318 RIPv2 Convergence and Loop Prevention 320 Converged Steady-State Operation 327 Triggered (Flash) Updates and Poisoned Routes 328 RIPv2 Convergence When Routing Updates Cease 331 Convergence Extras 334 RIPv2 Configuration 334 Enabling RIPv2 and the Effects of Autosummarization 335 RIPv2 Authentication 337 RIPv2 Next-Hop Feature and Split Horizon 338 RIPv2 Offset Lists 338 Route Filtering with Distribute Lists and Prefix Lists 338 RIPng for IPv6 339 Foundation Summary 342 Memory Builders 345 Definitions 345 Further Reading 345 Chapter 8 EIGRP 347 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 347 Foundation Topics 356 EIGRP Basics and Evolution 356 EIGRP Roots: Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 357 Moving from IGRP to Enhanced IGRP 358 EIGRP Metrics, Packets, and Adjacencies 360 EIGRP Classic Metrics 360 Bandwidth Metric Component 361 Delay Metric Component 361 Reliability Metric Component 362 Load Metric Component 362 MTU Metric Component 363 Hop Count Metric Component 363 Calculating the Composite Metric 363 EIGRP Wide Metrics 364 Tweaking Interface Metrics to Influence Path Selection 368 EIGRP Packet Format 368 EIGRP Packets 371 EIGRP Packets in Action 371 Hello Packets 372 Acknowledgment Packets 372 Update Packets 373 Query Packet 374 Reply Packets 374 SIA-Query and SIA-Reply Packets 374 Reliable Transport Protocol 374 Router Adjacencies 376 Diffusing Update Algorithm 380 Topology Table 380 Computed, Reported, and Feasible Distances, and Feasibility Condition 384 Local and Diffusing Computations in EIGRP 391 DUAL FSM 397 Stuck-In-Active State 402 EIGRP Named Mode 410 Address Family Section 414 Per-AF-Interface Configuration Section 415 Per-AF-Topology Configuration Section 416 Additional and Advanced EIGRP Features 417 Router ID 417 Unequal-Cost Load Balancing 420 Add-Path Support 421 Stub Routing 423 Route Summarization 427 Passive Interfaces 431 Graceful Shutdown 432 Securing EIGRP with Authentication 432 Default Routing Using EIGRP 435 Split Horizon 436 EIGRP Over the ToP 437 EIGRP Logging and Reporting 443 EIGRP Route Filtering 443 EIGRP Offset Lists 444 Clearing the IP Routing Table 444 Foundation Summary 445 Memory Builders 450 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 450 Definitions 450 Further Reading 450 Chapter 9 OSPF 453 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 453 Foundation Topics 460 OSPF Database Exchange 460 OSPF Router IDs 460 Becoming Neighbors, Exchanging Databases, and Becoming Adjacent 461 OSPF Neighbor States 462 Becoming Neighbors: The Hello Process 464 Transmitting LSA Headers to Neighbors 466 Database Description Exchange: Master/Slave Relationship 466 Requesting, Getting, and Acknowledging LSAs 468 Designated Routers on LANs 469 Designated Router Optimization on LANs 470 DR Election on LANs 471 Designated Routers on WANs and OSPF Network Types 472 Caveats Regarding OSPF Network Types over NBMA Networks 474 Example of OSPF Network Types and NBMA 474 SPF Calculation 479 Steady-State Operation 480 OSPF Design and LSAs 480 OSPF Design Terms 480 OSPF Path Selection Process 482 LSA Types 482 LSA Types 1 and 2 484 LSA Type 3 and Inter-Area Costs 488 LSA Types 4 and 5, and External Route Types 1 and 2 492 OSPF Design in Light of LSA Types 496 Stubby Areas 496 OSPF Path Choices That Do Not Use Cost 502 Choosing the Best Type of Path 502 Best-Path Side Effects of ABR Loop Prevention 502 OSPF Configuration 505 OSPF Costs and Clearing the OSPF Process 507 Alternatives to the OSPF network Command 510 OSPF Filtering 510 Filtering Routes Using the distribute-list Command 511 OSPF ABR LSA Type 3 Filtering 513 Filtering Type 3 LSAs with the area range Command 514 Virtual Link Configuration 515 Configuring Classic OSPF Authentication 517 Configuring Extended Cryptographic OSPF Authentication 520 Protecting OSPF Routers with TTL Security Check 522 Tuning OSPF Performance 523 Tuning the SPF Scheduling with SPF Throttling 524 Tuning the LSA Origination with LSA Throttling 526 Incremental SPF 527 OSPFv2 Prefix Suppression 528 OSPF Stub Router Configuration 529 OSPF Graceful Restart 530 OSPF Graceful Shutdown 532 OSPFv3 533 Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 533 Virtual Links, Address Summarization, and Other OSPFv3 Features 534 OSPFv3 LSA Types 534 OSPFv3 in NBMA Networks 536 Configuring OSPFv3 over Frame Relay 537 Enabling and Configuring OSPFv3 537 OSPFv3 Authentication and Encryption 546 OSPFv3 Address Family Support 548 OSPFv3 Prefix Suppression 552 OSPFv3 Graceful Shutdown 552 Foundation Summary 553 Memory Builders 560 Fill in Key Tables from Memory 560 Definitions 560 Further Reading 561 Chapter 10 IS-IS 563 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 563 Foundation Topics 571 OSI Network Layer and Addressing 572 Levels of Routing in OSI Networks 576 IS-IS Metrics, Levels, and Adjacencies 577 IS-IS Packet Types 579 Hello Packets 579 Link State PDUs 580 Complete and Partial Sequence Numbers PDUs 585 IS-IS Operation over Different Network Types 586 IS-IS Operation over Point-to-Point Links 587 IS-IS Operation over Broadcast Links 592 Areas in IS-IS 598 Authentication in IS-IS 608 IPv6 Support in IS-IS 610 Configuring IS-IS 613 Foundation Summary 625 Memory Builders 629 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 630 Definitions 630 Further Reading 630 Chapter 11 IGP Route Redistribution, Route Summarization, Default Routing, and Troubleshooting 633 "Do I Know This Already?" Quiz 633 Foundation Topics 638 Route Maps, Prefix Lists, and Administrative Distance 638 Configuring Route Maps with the route-map Command 638 Route Map match Commands for Route Redistribution 640 Route Map set Commands for Route Redistribution 641 IP Prefix Lists 641 Administrative Distance 644 Route Redistribution 645 Mechanics of the redistribute Command 645 Redistribution Using Default Settings 646 Setting Metrics, Metric Types, and Tags 649 Redistributing a Subset of Routes Using a Route Map 650 Mutual Redistribution at Multiple Routers 654 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Setting the Administrative Distance 656 Preventing Suboptimal Routes by Using Route Tags 659 Using Metrics and Metric Types to Influence Redistributed Routes 661 Route Summarization 663 EIGRP Route Summarization 664 OSPF Route Summarization 665 Default Routes 665 Using Static Routes to, with redistribute static 667 Using the default-information originate Command 669 Using the ip default-network Command 670 Using Route Summarization to Create Default Routes 671 Performance Routing (PfR) 672 Performance Routing Operational Phases 673 Performance Routing Concepts 674 Authentication 674 Performance Routing Operational Roles 675 Master Controller (MC) 675 Border Router 676 PfR Basic Configuration 677 Configuration of the Master Controller 677 Configuration of the Border Router 681 Task Completion on R3 682 Troubleshooting Complex Layer 3 Issues 683 Layer 3 Troubleshooting Process 684 Layer 3 Protocol Troubleshooting and Commands 686 IP Routing Processes 686 Approaches to Resolving Layer 3 Issues 695 Foundation Summary 696 Memory Builders 698 Fill In Key Tables from Memory 698 Definitions 698 Further Reading 698 Part IV Final Preparation Chapter 12 Final Preparation 701 Tools for Final Preparation 701 Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions on the CD 701 Install the Software from the CD 701 Activate and Download the Practice Exam 702 Activating Other Exams 702 Premium Edition 703 The Cisco Learning Network 703 Memory Tables 703 Chapter-Ending Review Tools 704 Suggested Plan for Final Review/Study 704 Using the Exam Engine 704 Summary 705 Part V Appendixes Appendix A Answers to the "Do I Know This Already?" Quizzes 707 Appendix B CCIE Exam Updates 713 CD-Only Appendix C Decimal to Binary Conversion Table Appendix D IP Addressing Practice Appendix E Key Tables for CCIE Study Appendix F Solutions for Key Tables for CCIE Study Appendix G Study Planner Glossary 9781587143960 TOC 7/22/2014

About the Author

Narbik Kocharians, CCIE No. 12410 (Routing and Switching, Security, SP), is a Triple CCIE with more than 32 years of experience in the IT industry. He has designed, implemented, and supported numerous enterprise networks. Narbik is the president of Micronics Training Inc. (, where he teaches CCIE R&S and SP boot camps. Peter Paluch, CCIE No. 23527 (Routing and Switching), is an assistant professor, Cisco Networking Academy instructor, and instructor trainer at the Faculty of Management Science and Informatics, University of Zilina, Slovakia. Peter has cooperated in various educational activities in Slovakia and abroad, focusing on networking and Linux-based network server systems. He is also active at the Cisco Support Community, holding the Cisco Designated VIP award in LAN & WAN Routing and Switching areas since the award program inception in 2011. Upon invitation by Cisco in 2012, Peter joined two Job Task Analysis groups that assisted defining the upcoming CCIE R&S and CCNP R&S certification exam topics. Peter holds an M.Sc. degree in Applied Informatics and a doctoral degree in the area of VoIP quality degradation factors. Together with his students, Peter has started the project of implementing the EIGRP routing protocol into the Quagga open-source routing software suite, and has been driving the effort since its inception in 2013.

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