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Canine Olfaction Science and Law


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Table of Contents


The Anatomy of the Canine Nose
David Bainbridge
Evolution of the Nose
Embryonic Development of the Nose
Skeleton of the Muzzle
Nasal Planum, Cartilages, and Muscles
Vestibule and Vomeronasal Organ
Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Sinuses
Olfactory Receptor Cells and Their Connections to the Brain

Wiring of the Olfactory System and the Functional Role of Neurons and Glia during Lifelong Turnover
Konstantin Wewetzer and Gudrun Brandes
Cellular Constituents of the Olfactory System
Functional Role of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Ensheathing Cells during Lifelong Neural Turnover
Lessons from the Olfactory System for the Treatment of Canine and Human Central Nervous System Injury

Olfaction and the Canine Brain
Marcello Siniscalchi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Pathways of Olfactory Stimulation to the Canine Brain
Hemispheric Specialization and Olfaction in Dogs
Olfactory Cues in Social Behavior

Genetics of Canine Olfaction
Pascale Quignon and Francis Galibert
Olfactory Systems
Odorant Receptors
The Dog's OR Repertoire
Dog Olfaction and Its Practical Applications

Effects of Disease on Canine Olfaction
Cynthia M. Otto
Diagnosis of Olfactory Dysfunction
Causes of Olfactory Dysfunction

Olfaction in Wild Canids and Russian Canid Hybrids
Nathaniel J. Hall, Alexandra Protopopova, and Clive D.L. Wynne
The Function of the Canine Nose
Is Wild Canid Olfaction Better?


The Development of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Its Uses in Odor Analysis
Joanna Rudnicka and Boguslaw Buszewski
Beginnings of Gas Chromatography
The Gas Chromatograph
Mass Spectrometry
Combining Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF/MS)
Applications of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

Aerodynamics of Odor Plumes and Odor Plume Structures in Different Habitats
Paul A. Moore
Importance of Scale
Physical Constraints on Odor Transmission in Air
Summary of the Physical Constraints to Odor Dispersion
Odor Landscapes at Varying Scales
Searching Odor Landscapes: Environment-Specific Odor Fields

The Practical and Legal Significance of the Chemical Analysis of Odor in Relation to Canine Forensic and Judicial Evidence
John Ensminger and Megan A. Ferguson
Volatile Organic Compounds and the Odor of Human Cadavers
Search for the Human Decomposition Profile
Relating Analytically Determined Decomposition Profiles to Canine Scent Alerts
Cocaine on Currency


Canine Olfactory Learning and Behavior
Nathaniel J. Hall and Clive D.L. Wynne
Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Delivery of the Reinforcer
Stimulus Control
Simple Odor Mixtures
Complex Stimulus Control
Conditional Discrimination: The Dual Function Dog
Conclusion and Future Directions

Training Considerations in Wildlife Detection
Aimee Hurt, Deborah A. (Smith) Woollett, and Megan Parker
Dog Selection
Handler Selection
Passive Final Response
Training Samples
Transition to Naturally Occurring Targets
Responsibilities of the Handler
Nontarget Issues
Maintaining Target Fidelity in the Field

Training Fundamentals and the Selection of Dogs and Personnel for Detection Work
Sherri Minhinnick, L.E. Papet, Carol M. Stephenson, and Mark R. Stephenson
Is Training an Art or a Science?
Axioms of Canine Training
Anthropomorphism as a Confounder
Actions and Intonations of Cueing
Selecting Dogs for Olfaction Responsibilities
Selection and Appointment of a Handler
Selection of a Trainer or a Vendor

Training a Statistically Superior Scent Discrimination Canine: Where Trainer Wisdom Meets Scientific Validation
L.E. Papet and Sherri Minhinnick
Markers as Rewards, Reinforcers, Motivators, and Commands
Preconditioning and Initial Odor Recognition Training
Training for Reliability

Statistical Reliability Confounders and Improvement in Advanced Dog Training: Patterns, Routines, Targets, Alerts, Distractors, Reinforcement, and Other Issues
Sherri Minhinnick
Independent Sniffing and Patterning During Search Routines
Types of Alerts and Indications
Distractors, Detection to Discrimination
Continuous Improvement Is Mandatory


Canine Drug-Detection Evidence: Admissibility, Canine Qualifications, and Investigative Practices
Leslie A. Shoebotham
Background and Canine Sniff Doctrine
Canine Sniffs of Vehicles
Canine Sniffs of Homes
Detection Dog Certification, Training, and Field Performance Records
Determining Canine Reliability for Contraband Detection
Canine-Reliability Determinations after Harris
Types of Canine-Reliability Evidence Submitted
Daubert Challenges to Canine Sniff Evidence after Harris
Retirement of Marijuana-Trained Detection Dogs in States Where Marijuana Possession and Use Has Been Decriminalizing
Canine Sniff of a Person

Cadaver Detection in Forensic Anthropology and Criminology: An Overview with Personal Notes
Keith P. Jacobi
History behind Forensic Anthropology and Cadaver Dogs
Search for Remains and Reliability of Cadaver Dogs
Locating Antiquated Buried Human Bone
Cadaver Dog and Scent of Burned or Cremated Human Bone
Positive and Negative: Judicial Cases with Cadaver Dogs
Cadaver Dogs and Detection of Human Remains in Water
Future Directions

Detection of Cocaine on Currency
Thomas H. Jourdan
U.S. v. $30,060
U.S. v. $215,300
Cocaine on Currency
Interpretation of the Level of Drugs on Currency

Narcotic and Explosive Odors: Volatile Organic Compounds as Training Aids for Olfactory Detection
L.E. Papet
Types of Materials
Contamination Types and Causes
Odor Concentration, Availability, and Attributes
Odor Aid Usage in Training and Deployment

Scent Lineups: Variables in Procedures and Statistical Verification
Tadeusz Jezierski
Individual Odor Theory
Rationale for Identification by Scent Lineup for Forensic Purposes
Different Scent for Different Body Parts
Evaluation of Indications and Validity of Canine Identification
Validity of Scent Lineups
Preferred Scented Items for Lineups
Familiarity and Gender
Time Factor in Scent Recognition
Cosmetics and Smoking
Control Trials
Number of Stations and Target Samples
Control and "Zero" Trials
Effect of Increasing the Number of Dogs Used
Clever Hans Effect
Location of Target Samples in Lineups
Abilities of Individual Dogs
Other Uses of Canine Lineups

How US Courts Deal with the "Black Box" of Canine Scent Identification
John Ensminger
Development of Foundational Requirements for Tracking Evidence
Scent Lineups
Scent Transfer Units
Courts Begin to Question Validity of Scent Lineups
How Do Courts Deal with the "Black Box"?


Trained Dogs in Insect Detection
Margie P. Lehnert and Emma N.I. Weeks
Beneficial Insects
Harmful Insects
Difficulties with Detecting Insects
Advantages of Canine Insect Scent Detection
Early History of Canine Insect Scent Detection
Efficacy of Canine Detection for Insect Surveillance
False-Positive Indications
Training Dogs with Live Insects
Alternatives to Live Insects for Training
Efficacy of Alternatives to Live Insects for Training Purposes
Applied Canine Insect Scent Detection

Detection Dogs in Strategies for Eradicating Pest Species from Natural Environments
Keith Springer
Macquarie Island
New Zealand Department of Conservation Pest Detection Dog Program

Canine Biodetection in Conservation, Eradication, and Border Protection: A Regulatory Perspective
John Ensminger
Use of Detection Dogs
Regulatory Requirements for Arctic Surveys
Habitat Fragmentation
Identification of Individual Tigers
Detection of Disease in Wildlife
Vultures, Poisons, and Pollutants


Detection of Human Cancer by Dogs
Tadeusz Jezierski
Malignant Melanoma
Lung Cancer
Breast Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Bladder Cancer
Ovarian Cancer
Colorectal Cancer
State of Research and Prospects for Clinical Application
Methodology Issues

Medical Alerting to Seizures, Glycemic Changes, and Migraines: Significance of Untrained Behaviors in Service Dogs
John Ensminger
Americans with Disabilities Act
Seizure Alerting
Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia Alerting
Migraine Alerting
Legal Status of Spontaneously Alerting Dogs
Need for Further Research

About the Author

Tadeusz Jezierski is professor of agricultural science at the Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He has been a full professor at the institute since 1999 and is the head of the institute's Department of Animal Behavior. He is an internationally known author on a wide range of topics and has written papers on animal behavior, genetics, and animal welfare. His recent research interests include operant conditioning of sniffer dogs, behavioral genetics, human-animal interactions and the human-animal bond, genetic and environmental factors influencing social and sexual behavior of farm animals, feeding behavior, and emotional behavior and physiological reactions in farm animals. He has written 73 peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, four monographs, four handbooks, 11 book chapters, and 111 conference reports. John Ensminger, a member of the bar of the State of New York, who has practiced in the areas of constitutional law, mental patient civil rights, taxation of financial instruments, anti-money laundering and counterfinancing of terrorism, and most recently the law as it applies to skilled dogs. He has written over 30 papers on these topics, with articles on service and police dogs appearing in numerous journals. He is also a contributing editor for the website of the Animal Legal and Historical Center of the Michigan State University College of Law. He has written two books on specialized dogs, Service and Therapy Dogs in American Society and Police and Military Dogs. L.E. Papet is the owner and operator of K9 Resources, LLC, a privately held licensed investigative firm that specializes in the use of detection canines. As a scientific data-driven canine trainer, handler, and consultant, his primary focus is the training, testing and use of canines in olfactory disciplines including, but not limited to, explosives, illicit drugs, humans (live and deceased), pharmaceuticals, alcohol, accelerants, and many other forms of contraband and odor for both public and private sectors. He has trained hundreds of local, state, and federal officials, has written over 170 protocols for the training, testing, safety, deployment, and implementation of detection canines, and has received commendations for his work. He enjoys contributing to works involving working dogs employing the use of their olfactory skills and may be contacted at lep@k9resources.com.


"Canine Olfaction Science and Law expands on our fascination of canine scent detection, exploring the issues from many angles with a scientific perspective. All of the sections discussed ... are expanding new horizons for canine research and emphasize the importance for continued research, especially in the conservation arena. The book is a great reference for anyone working with dog detection."-Journal of Wildlife Management, February 2017

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