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Canine Olfaction Science and Law

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Table of Contents

ANATOMY, GENETICS, NEUROLOGY, DISEASE, AND EVOLUTION The Anatomy of the Canine Nose David Bainbridge Evolution of the Nose Embryonic Development of the Nose Skeleton of the Muzzle Nasal Planum, Cartilages, and Muscles Vestibule and Vomeronasal Organ Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Sinuses Olfactory Receptor Cells and Their Connections to the Brain Wiring of the Olfactory System and the Functional Role of Neurons and Glia during Lifelong Turnover Konstantin Wewetzer and Gudrun Brandes Cellular Constituents of the Olfactory System Functional Role of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Olfactory Ensheathing Cells during Lifelong Neural Turnover Lessons from the Olfactory System for the Treatment of Canine and Human Central Nervous System Injury Olfaction and the Canine Brain Marcello Siniscalchi Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pathways of Olfactory Stimulation to the Canine Brain Hemispheric Specialization and Olfaction in Dogs Olfactory Cues in Social Behavior Conclusions Genetics of Canine Olfaction Pascale Quignon and Francis Galibert Olfactory Systems Odorant Receptors The Dog's OR Repertoire Dog Olfaction and Its Practical Applications Conclusion Endnotes Effects of Disease on Canine Olfaction Cynthia M. Otto Diagnosis of Olfactory Dysfunction Causes of Olfactory Dysfunction Conclusions Olfaction in Wild Canids and Russian Canid Hybrids Nathaniel J. Hall, Alexandra Protopopova, and Clive D.L. Wynne The Function of the Canine Nose Is Wild Canid Olfaction Better? Conclusions Endnotes CHEMISTRY AND AERODYNAMICS OF ODORS The Development of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Its Uses in Odor Analysis Joanna Rudnicka and Boguslaw Buszewski Beginnings of Gas Chromatography The Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry Combining Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC x GC-TOF/MS) Applications of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Conclusions Aerodynamics of Odor Plumes and Odor Plume Structures in Different Habitats Paul A. Moore Importance of Scale Physical Constraints on Odor Transmission in Air Summary of the Physical Constraints to Odor Dispersion Odor Landscapes at Varying Scales Searching Odor Landscapes: Environment-Specific Odor Fields Summary The Practical and Legal Significance of the Chemical Analysis of Odor in Relation to Canine Forensic and Judicial Evidence John Ensminger and Megan A. Ferguson Volatile Organic Compounds and the Odor of Human Cadavers Search for the Human Decomposition Profile Relating Analytically Determined Decomposition Profiles to Canine Scent Alerts Cocaine on Currency Conclusion Endnotes BEHAVIOR, LEARNING, AND TRAINING Canine Olfactory Learning and Behavior Nathaniel J. Hall and Clive D.L. Wynne Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Operant Conditioning Delivery of the Reinforcer Stimulus Control Simple Odor Mixtures Complex Stimulus Control Conditional Discrimination: The Dual Function Dog Memory Conclusion and Future Directions Endnotes Training Considerations in Wildlife Detection Aimee Hurt, Deborah A. (Smith) Woollett, and Megan Parker Dog Selection Handler Selection Passive Final Response Training Samples Transition to Naturally Occurring Targets Responsibilities of the Handler Nontarget Issues Maintaining Target Fidelity in the Field Conclusion Endnote Training Fundamentals and the Selection of Dogs and Personnel for Detection Work Sherri Minhinnick, L.E. Papet, Carol M. Stephenson, and Mark R. Stephenson Is Training an Art or a Science? Axioms of Canine Training Anthropomorphism as a Confounder Actions and Intonations of Cueing Selecting Dogs for Olfaction Responsibilities Selection and Appointment of a Handler Selection of a Trainer or a Vendor Summary Endnote Training a Statistically Superior Scent Discrimination Canine: Where Trainer Wisdom Meets Scientific Validation L.E. Papet and Sherri Minhinnick Acclimation Markers as Rewards, Reinforcers, Motivators, and Commands Preconditioning and Initial Odor Recognition Training Training for Reliability Summary Statistical Reliability Confounders and Improvement in Advanced Dog Training: Patterns, Routines, Targets, Alerts, Distractors, Reinforcement, and Other Issues Sherri Minhinnick Independent Sniffing and Patterning During Search Routines Types of Alerts and Indications Distractors, Detection to Discrimination Continuous Improvement Is Mandatory Summary USES IN FORENSICS AND LAW Canine Drug-Detection Evidence: Admissibility, Canine Qualifications, and Investigative Practices Leslie A. Shoebotham Background and Canine Sniff Doctrine Canine Sniffs of Vehicles Canine Sniffs of Homes Detection Dog Certification, Training, and Field Performance Records Determining Canine Reliability for Contraband Detection Canine-Reliability Determinations after Harris Types of Canine-Reliability Evidence Submitted Daubert Challenges to Canine Sniff Evidence after Harris Retirement of Marijuana-Trained Detection Dogs in States Where Marijuana Possession and Use Has Been Decriminalizing Canine Sniff of a Person Acknowledgment Endnotes Cadaver Detection in Forensic Anthropology and Criminology: An Overview with Personal Notes Keith P. Jacobi History behind Forensic Anthropology and Cadaver Dogs Search for Remains and Reliability of Cadaver Dogs Locating Antiquated Buried Human Bone Cadaver Dog and Scent of Burned or Cremated Human Bone Positive and Negative: Judicial Cases with Cadaver Dogs Cadaver Dogs and Detection of Human Remains in Water Future Directions Endnotes Detection of Cocaine on Currency Thomas H. Jourdan U.S. v. $30,060 U.S. v. $215,300 Cocaine on Currency Interpretation of the Level of Drugs on Currency Summary Endnotes Narcotic and Explosive Odors: Volatile Organic Compounds as Training Aids for Olfactory Detection L.E. Papet Types of Materials Contamination Types and Causes Odor Concentration, Availability, and Attributes Odor Aid Usage in Training and Deployment Summary Scent Lineups: Variables in Procedures and Statistical Verification Tadeusz Jezierski Individual Odor Theory Rationale for Identification by Scent Lineup for Forensic Purposes Different Scent for Different Body Parts Evaluation of Indications and Validity of Canine Identification Validity of Scent Lineups Preferred Scented Items for Lineups Attractiveness Familiarity and Gender Time Factor in Scent Recognition Cosmetics and Smoking Control Trials Number of Stations and Target Samples Control and "Zero" Trials Effect of Increasing the Number of Dogs Used Clever Hans Effect Location of Target Samples in Lineups Abilities of Individual Dogs Other Uses of Canine Lineups Conclusion How US Courts Deal with the "Black Box" of Canine Scent Identification John Ensminger Development of Foundational Requirements for Tracking Evidence Scent Lineups Scent Transfer Units Courts Begin to Question Validity of Scent Lineups How Do Courts Deal with the "Black Box"? Endnotes USES IN CONSERVATION AND REMEDIATION Trained Dogs in Insect Detection Margie P. Lehnert and Emma N.I. Weeks Beneficial Insects Harmful Insects Difficulties with Detecting Insects Advantages of Canine Insect Scent Detection Early History of Canine Insect Scent Detection Efficacy of Canine Detection for Insect Surveillance False-Positive Indications Training Dogs with Live Insects Alternatives to Live Insects for Training Efficacy of Alternatives to Live Insects for Training Purposes Applied Canine Insect Scent Detection Conclusion Detection Dogs in Strategies for Eradicating Pest Species from Natural Environments Keith Springer Macquarie Island New Zealand Department of Conservation Pest Detection Dog Program Conclusion Endnotes Canine Biodetection in Conservation, Eradication, and Border Protection: A Regulatory Perspective John Ensminger Conservation Use of Detection Dogs Regulatory Requirements for Arctic Surveys Habitat Fragmentation Identification of Individual Tigers Detection of Disease in Wildlife Vultures, Poisons, and Pollutants Eradication Summary Acknowledgment Endnotes USES IN DETECTION OF DISEASES AND MEDICAL CONDITIONS Detection of Human Cancer by Dogs Tadeusz Jezierski Malignant Melanoma Lung Cancer Breast Cancer Prostate Cancer Bladder Cancer Ovarian Cancer Colorectal Cancer State of Research and Prospects for Clinical Application Methodology Issues Conclusions Endnote Medical Alerting to Seizures, Glycemic Changes, and Migraines: Significance of Untrained Behaviors in Service Dogs John Ensminger Americans with Disabilities Act Seizure Alerting Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia Alerting Migraine Alerting Legal Status of Spontaneously Alerting Dogs Need for Further Research Endnotes

About the Author

Tadeusz Jezierski is professor of agricultural science at the Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding of the Polish Academy of Sciences. He has been a full professor at the institute since 1999 and is the head of the institute's Department of Animal Behavior. He is an internationally known author on a wide range of topics and has written papers on animal behavior, genetics, and animal welfare. His recent research interests include operant conditioning of sniffer dogs, behavioral genetics, human-animal interactions and the human-animal bond, genetic and environmental factors influencing social and sexual behavior of farm animals, feeding behavior, and emotional behavior and physiological reactions in farm animals. He has written 73 peer-reviewed publications in scientific journals, four monographs, four handbooks, 11 book chapters, and 111 conference reports. John Ensminger, a member of the bar of the State of New York, who has practiced in the areas of constitutional law, mental patient civil rights, taxation of financial instruments, anti-money laundering and counterfinancing of terrorism, and most recently the law as it applies to skilled dogs. He has written over 30 papers on these topics, with articles on service and police dogs appearing in numerous journals. He is also a contributing editor for the website of the Animal Legal and Historical Center of the Michigan State University College of Law. He has written two books on specialized dogs, Service and Therapy Dogs in American Society and Police and Military Dogs. L.E. Papet is the owner and operator of K9 Resources, LLC, a privately held licensed investigative firm that specializes in the use of detection canines. As a scientific data-driven canine trainer, handler, and consultant, his primary focus is the training, testing and use of canines in olfactory disciplines including, but not limited to, explosives, illicit drugs, humans (live and deceased), pharmaceuticals, alcohol, accelerants, and many other forms of contraband and odor for both public and private sectors. He has trained hundreds of local, state, and federal officials, has written over 170 protocols for the training, testing, safety, deployment, and implementation of detection canines, and has received commendations for his work. He enjoys contributing to works involving working dogs employing the use of their olfactory skills and may be contacted at lep@k9resources.com.


"Canine Olfaction Science and Law expands on our fascination of canine scent detection, exploring the issues from many angles with a scientific perspective. All of the sections discussed ... are expanding new horizons for canine research and emphasize the importance for continued research, especially in the conservation arena. The book is a great reference for anyone working with dog detection."-Journal of Wildlife Management, February 2017

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