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Cellulose and Other Natural Polymer Systems

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Table of Contents

I. Biogenesis.- 1 A Cytological Model of Cellulose Biogenesis in the Alga Oocystis apiculata.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Microfibril Assembly.- 3. Microfibril Orientation.- 4. Discussion.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 Organized Microfibril Assembly in Higher Plant Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Evolution of Ideas about the Organization of Cell Walls.- 3. Positioning and Ordering of Wall Subunits.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 3 Cell-Wall Formation in Fucus Zygotes: A Model System to Study the Assembly and Localization of Wall Polymers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental System.- 3. Experimental Framework and Questions.- References.- 4 Cell-Wall Regeneration by Protoplasts Isolated from Higher Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies of the Regenerated Wall: Perspective.- 3. Cellulose Microfibrils.- 4. Cell-Wall Constituents Other Than Cellulose.- References.- 5 Cellulose-Microfibril Assembly and Orientation in Higher Plant Cells with Particular Reference to Seedlings of Zea mays.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Factors That Affect the Visualization of Terminal Complexes.- 3. Oriented Microfibril Deposition.- 4. Unidirectional Microfibril Deposition.- 5. Experimental Procedures.- 6. Influence of Cytoplasmic Structures on Microfibril Deposition.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Microfibril-Tip Growth and the Development of Pattern in Cell Walls.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Glaucocystis nostochinearum.- 3. Cotton Fibers.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 7 The Role of the Golgi Apparatus in the Biosynthesis of Natural Polymer Systems with Particular Reference to Cellulose.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pleurochrysis: A Model System for Golgi-Derived Cellulose.- 3. Relationship of Pleurochrysis to Other Systems.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Interaction of Cell-Wall Formation and Cell Division in Higher Plant Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Data with Tobacco Mesophyll Protoplasts.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Callose-Deposit Formation in Radish Root Hairs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. UDP-Glucose-Incubated Root Hairs.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Summary.- References.- 10 Chitin-Fibril Formation in Algae.- 1. Introduction.- 2. ?-Chitin-Fibril Formation of the Centric Diatoms Cyclotella and Thalassiosira.- 3. Lorica Microfibrils of Poterioochromonas.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 11 Synthesis of Chitin Microfibrils in Vitro.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Properties of Chitin Synthetase.- 3. Effect of Nucleosides and Nucleotides.- 4. Polyoxins.- 5. Activation and Inactivation of Chitin Synthetase.- 6. Autogenous Inhibitors of Chitin Synthetase.- 7. Biosynthesis of Chitin Microfibrils.- 8. Chitosomes and Chitin Biosynthesis.- 9. Dissociated Forms of Chitin Synthetase.- 10. On the Mechanism of Chitin-Chain Formation.- 11. Perspectives and Future Developments.- References.- 12 Cellulose Synthesis in Detached Cotton Fibers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Criteria for Cell-Free Synthesis of Cellulose.- 3. Why Is Cellulose Synthesis Lost on Homogenization of Plant Tissues?.- 4. Protection of Cellulose Synthesis in Detached Cotton Fibers.- 5. Role of Polyethylene Glycol in the Protection of Cellulose Synthesis.- 6. Does Cellulose Synthesis Require a Membrane Potential?.- 7. Where Do We Go from Here?.- References.- 13 The Control of Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution in the Biogenesis of Cellulose.- 1. Introduction to the Concepts of Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution and Their Relationships to the Polymerization Mechanism.- 2. Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution in the Biogenesis of Cellulose.- 3. Discussion.- References.- 14 Biogenesis of Cellulose I Microfibrils Occurs by Cell-Directed Self-Assembly in Acetobacter xylinum.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Acetobacter xylinum as a Model System for Cellulose Biogenesis.- 3. Effect of Calcofluor White ST on Cellulose Biogenesis.- 4. Effect of Carboxymethylcellulose on Cellulose Biogenesis.- 5. Cellulose Microfibrils Are Synthesized by Cell-Directed Self-Assembly in Acetobacter xylinum.- 6. Does Cell-Directed Crystallization Occur in Other Organisms?.- 7. Theoretical Implications of Cell-Directed Self-Assembly.- References.- 15 A Study of the Polymerization Kinetics of Bacterial Cellulose through Gel-Permeation Chromatography.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Bacterial-Cellulose Production.- 3. Theoretical and Experimental Objectives.- 4. Poisson Polymerization Function.- 5. Experimental Procedures.- 6. Results and Discussion.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. Nomenclature.- References.- 16 Does ?-Glucan Synthesis Need a Primer?.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Results.- 3. Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 17 Intermediates of Cellulose Synthesis in Acetobacter.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies with Whole Cells.- 3. Studies with Cell-Free Preparations.- 4. Inhibitors of Cellulose Synthesis.- 5. General Assessment.- References.- 18 Protein Glycosylation in Higher Plants: Recent Developments.- 1. Introduction.- 2. In Vitro Glycosylation Systems from Higher Plants.- 3. The Evidence for Core Glycosylation In Vitro.- 4. Glycosylation by Pathways Other Than Oligosaccharide Transfer from Lipid-Oligosaccharide.- 5. Glycoprotein Products of the In Vitro Systems.- 6. Subcellular Localization.- 7. Other Aspects.- References.- II. Structure.- 19 The Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils in Valonia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Dimensions of Cellulose Microfibrils.- 3. Cross-Sectional View of Cellulose Microfibrils.- 4. Internal Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils.- References.- 20 The Macromolecular Organization of Cellulose and Chitin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. X-Ray Diffraction of Fibrous Polymers.- 3. Polymorphic Structures of Cellulose.- 4. X-Ray Studies of the Structures of Cellulose.- 5. Chitin.- References.- 21 Comparisons between Synthetic and Natural Microfiber Systems.- 1. Introduction: Fibers, Fibrils, and the Ultimate Fibril.- 2. Synthetic Fiber-Forming Technologies: Common Characteristics.- 3. Specific Fiber-Forming Processes.- 4. Direct Fibril-Forming Processes.- 5. Fibrils in Natural Fibers-Comparison and Integration with Synthetic Systems.- 6. Fibril Formation: Anisotropic Fluids and Solidification.- 7. Discussion: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- References.- III. Degradation.- 22 ?-Glucanases in Higher Plants: Localization, Potential Functions, and Regulation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. ?1,3-Glucanases.- 3. ?1,4-Glucanase (Cellulase).- 4. Regulation of ?-Glucanases.- References.- 23 Visualization of Cellulases and Cellulose Degradation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Cellulase Components.- 3. Cellulose Degradation by the Complete Cellulase Enzyme System.- 4. Cellulose Degradation by Purified and Reconstituted Cellulase Components.- 5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives.- References.

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