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Chemical Principles


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Note: Each chapter concludes with Exercises. 1. Chemists and Chemistry 1.1 Thinking Like a Chemist 1.2 A Real-World Chemistry Problem 1.3 The Scientific Method 1.4 Industrial Chemistry 1.5 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Real-World Chemistry 2. Atoms, Molecules, and Ions 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 2.3 Dalton's Atomic Theory 2.4 Cannizzaro's Interpretation 2.5 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 2.6 The Modern View of Atomic Structure: An Introduction 2.7 Molecules and Ions 2.8 An Introduction to the Periodic Table 2.9 Naming Simple Compounds 3. Stoichiometry 3.1 Atomic Masses 3.2 The Mole 3.3 Molar Mass 3.4 Percent Composition of Compounds 3.5 Determining the Formula of a Compound 3.6 Chemical Equations 3.7 Balancing Chemical Equations 3.8 Stoichiometric Calculations: Amounts of Reactants and Products 3.9 Calculations Involving a Limiting Reactant 4. Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent 4.2 The Nature of Aqueous Solutions: Strong and Weak Electrolytes 4.3 The Composition of Solutions 4.4 Types of Chemical Reactions 4.5 Precipitation Reactions 4.6 Describing Reactions in Solution 4.7 Selective Precipitation 4.8 Stoichiometry of Precipitation Reactions 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 4.11 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 4.12 Simple Oxidation-Reduction Titrations 5. Gases 5.1 Early Experiments 5.2 The Gas Laws of Boyle, Charles, and Avogadro 5.3 The Ideal Gas Law 5.4 Gas Stoichiometry 5.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 5.6 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 5.7 Effusion and Diffusion 5.8 Collisions of Gas Particles with the Container Walls 5.9 Intermolecular Collisions 5.10 Real Gases 5.11 Characteristics of Several Real Gases 5.12 Chemistry in the Atmosphere 6. Chemical Equilibrium 6.1 The Equilibrium Condition 6.2 The Equilibrium Constant 6.3 Equilibrium Expressions Involving Pressures 6.4 The Concept of Activity 6.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 6.6 Applications of the Equilibrium Constant 6.7 Solving Equilibrium Problems 6.8 Le Chatelier's Principle 6.9 Equilibria Involving Real Gases 7. Acids and Bases 7.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases 7.2 Acid Strength 7.3 The pH Scale 7.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions 7.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions 7.6 Bases 7.7 Polyprotic Acids 7.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts 7.9 Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration 7.10 Strong Acid Solutions in Which Water Contributes to the H+ Concentration 7.11 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary 8. Applications of Aqueous Equilibria 8.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion 8.2 Buffered Solutions 8.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions 8.4 Buffer Capacity 8.5 Titrations and pH Curves 8.6 Acid-Base Indicators 8.7 Titration of Polyprotic Acids 8.8 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product 8.9 Precipitation and Qualitative Analysis 8.10 Complex Ion Equilibria 9. Energy, Enthalpy, and Thermochemistry 9.1 The Nature of Energy 9.2 Enthalpy 9.3 Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases 9.4 Calorimetry 9.5 Hess's Law 9.6 Standard Enthalpies of Formation 9.7 Present Sources of Energy 9.8 New Energy Sources 10. Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy 10.1 Spontaneous Processes and Entropy 10.2 The Isothermal Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas 10.3 The Definition of Entropy 10.4 Entropy and Physical Changes 10.5 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 10.6 The Effect of Temperature on Spontaneity 10.7 Free Energy 10.8 Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions 10.9 Free Energy and Chemical Reactions 10.10 The Dependence of Free Energy on Pressure 10.11 Free Energy and Equilibrium 10.12 Free Energy and Work 10.13 Reversible and Irreversible Processes: A Summary 10.14 Adiabatic Processes 11. Electrochemistry 11.1 Galvanic Cells 11.2 Standard Reduction Potentials 11.3 Cell Potential, Electrical Work, and Free Energy 11.4 Dependence of the Cell Potential on Concentration 11.5 Batteries 11.6 Corrosion 11.7 Electrolysis 11.8 Commercial Electrolytic Processes 12. Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Theory 12.1 Electromagnetic Radiation 12.2 The Nature of Matter 12.3 The Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen 12.4 The Bohr Model 12.5 The Quantum Mechanical Description of the Atom 12.6 The Particle in a Box 12.7 The Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom 12.8 The Physical Meaning of a Wave Function 12.9 The Characteristics of Hydrogen Orbitals 12.10 Electron Spin and the Pauli Principle 12.11 Polyelectronic Atoms 12.12 The History of the Periodic Table 12.13 The Aufbau Principle and the Periodic Table 12.14 Further Development of the Polyelectronic Model 12.15 Periodic Trends in Atomic Properties 12.16 The Properties of a Group: The Alkali Metals 13. Bonding: General Concepts 13.1 Types of Chemical Bonds 13.2 Electronegativity 13.3 Bond Polarity and Dipole Moments 13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations and Sizes 13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds 13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions 13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 13.10 Lewis Structure 13.11 Resonance 13.12 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 13.13 Molecular Structure: The VSEPR Model 14. Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model 14.2 The Molecular Orbital Model 14.3 Bonding in Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules 14.4 Bonding in Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules 14.5 Combining the Localized Electron and Molecular Orbital Models 14.6 Orbitals: Human Inventions 14.7 Molecular Spectroscopy: An Introduction 14.8 Electronic Spectroscopy 14.9 Vibrational Spectroscopy 14.10 Rotational Spectroscopy 14.11 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 15. Chemical Kinetics 15.1 Reaction Rates 15.2 Rate Laws: An Introduction 15.3 Determining the Form of the Rate Law 15.4 The Integrated Rate Law 15.5 Rate Laws: A Summary 15.6 Reaction Mechanisms 15.7 The Steady-State Approximation 15.8 A Model for Chemical Kinetics 15.9 Catalysis 16. Liquids and Solids 16.1 Intermolecular Forces 16.2 The Liquid State 16.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids 16.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals 16.5 Carbon and Silicon: Network Atomic Solids 16.6 Molecular Solids 16.7 Ionic Solids 16.8 Structures of Actual Ionic Solids 16.9 Lattice Defects 16.10 Vapor Pressure and Changes of State 16.11 Phase Diagrams 16.12 Nanotechnology 17. Properties of Solutions 17.1 Solution Composition 17.2 The Thermodynamics of Solution Formation 17.3 Factors Affecting Solubility 17.4 The Vapor Pressures of Solutions 17.5 Boiling-Point Elevation and Freezing-Point Depression 17.6 Osmotic Pressure 17.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions 17.8 Colloids 18. The Representative Elements 18.1 A Survey of the Representative Elements 18.2 The Group 1A Elements 18.3 The Chemistry of Hydrogen 18.4 The Group 2A Elements 18.5 The Group 3A Elements 18.6 The Group 4A Elements 18.7 The Group 5A Elements 18.8 The Chemistry of Nitrogen 18.9 The Chemistry of Phosphorus 18.10 The Group 6A Elements 18.11 The Chemistry of Oxygen 18.12 The Chemistry of Sulfur 18.13 The Group 7A Elements 18.14 The Group 8A Elements 19. Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry 19.1 The Transition Metals: A Survey 19.2 The First-Row Transition Metals 19.3 Coordination Compounds 19.4 Isomerism 19.5 Bonding in Complex Ions: The Localized Electron Model 19.6 The Crystal Field Model 19.7 The Molecular Orbital Model 19.8 The Biological Importance of Coordination Complexes 20. The Nucleus: A Chemist's View 20.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay 20.2 The Kinetics of Radioactive Decay 20.3 Nuclear Transformations 20.4 Detection and Uses of Radioactivity 20.5 Thermodynamic Stability of the Nucleus 20.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 20.7 Effects of Radiation 21. Organic and Biochemical Molecules 21.1 Alkanes: Saturated Hydrocarbons 21.2 Alkenes and Alkynes 21.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 21.4 Hydrocarbon Derivatives 21.5 Polymers 21.6 Natural Polymers Appendix 1. Mathematical Procedures A1.1 Exponential Notation A1.2 Logarithms A1.3 Graphing Functions A1.4 Solving Quadratic Equations A1.5 Uncertainties in Measurements A1.6 Significant Figures Appendix 2. Units of Measurement and Conversions Among Units A2.1 Measurements A2.2 Unit Conversions Appendix 3. Spectral Analysis Appendix 4. Selected Thermodynamic Data Appendix 5. Equilibrium Constants and Reduction Potentials Glossary Answers to Selected Exercises Photo Credits Index

About the Author

Steve Zumdahl is the author of market-leading textbooks in introductory chemistry, general chemistry, honors-level chemistry, and high school chemistry. Recently retired from his long-time position as Director of Undergraduate Programs at the University of Illinois, he has received numerous awards for his contributions to chemical education. These include the National Catalyst Award in recognition of his contribution to chemical education, the University of Illinois Teaching Award, the UIUC Liberal Arts and Sciences Advising Award, and the School of Chemical Sciences Teaching Award (five times). He earned his B.S. in Chemistry from Wheaton College (IL), and his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois.


My sense is that the topics are pitched at an appropriate level.
The writing style is crisp and to the point whereas the art, tables, and end of chapter problems nicely support the written text.
The writing style is lucid, direct, precise, and non-verbose. Some other introductory chemistry texts adopt a verbose presentation with the attendant loss of clarity.
The students who are floundering and to whom I have recommended Zumdahl invariably come away with an enhanced understanding of the relevant chemical concepts after a thorough encounter with this text.
This is the singular text that does not compromise discipline of mind and contains flashes of insight and brilliance reminiscent of the Linus Pauling series of introductory texts, and yet is conceptually and algebraically accessible to most students with a good background in high school chemistry.

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