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Chemistry Workbook for Dummies


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Table of Contents

Introduction 1 About This Book 1 Foolish Assumptions 2 Icons Used in This Book 2 Beyond the Book 3 Where to Go from Here 3 Part 1: Getting Cozy with Numbers, Atoms, and Elements 5 Chapter 1: Noting Numbers Scientifically 7 Using Exponential and Scientific Notation to Report Measurements 7 Multiplying and Dividing in Scientific Notation 9 Using Exponential Notation to Add and Subtract 10 Distinguishing between Accuracy and Precision 12 Expressing Precision with Significant Figures 13 Doing Arithmetic with Significant Figures 15 Answers to Questions on Noting Numbers Scientifically 17 Chapter 2: Using and Converting Units 21 Familiarizing Yourself with Base Units and Metric System Prefixes 22 Building Derived Units from Base Units 23 Converting between Units: The Conversion Factor 25 Letting the Units Guide You 28 Answers to Questions on Using and Converting Units 31 Chapter 3: Breaking Down Atoms 33 The Atom: Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons 33 Deciphering Chemical Symbols: Atomic and Mass Numbers 35 Accounting for Isotopes Using Atomic Masses 38 Answers to Questions on Atoms 40 Chapter 4: Surveying the Periodic Table of the Elements 43 Organizing the Periodic Table into Periods and Groups 43 Predicting Properties from Periodic and Group Trends 46 Seeking Stability with Valence Electrons by Forming Ions 48 Putting Electrons in Their Places: Electron Configurations 50 Measuring the Amount of Energy (or Light) an Excited Electron Emits 53 Answers to Questions on the Periodic Table 55 Part 2: Making and Remaking Compounds 57 Chapter 5: Building Bonds 59 Pairing Charges with Ionic Bonds 60 Sharing Electrons with Covalent Bonds 63 Occupying and Overlapping Molecular Orbitals 67 Polarity: Sharing Electrons Unevenly 70 Shaping Molecules: VSEPR Theory and Hybridization 73 Answers to Questions on Bonds 78 Chapter 6: Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 81 Labeling Ionic Compounds and Writing Their Formulas 81 Getting a Grip on Ionic Compounds with Polyatomic Ions 85 Naming Molecular (Covalent) Compounds and Writing Their Formulas 87 Addressing Acids 89 Mixing the Rules for Naming and Formula Writing 91 Beyond the Basics: Naming Organic Carbon Chains 93 Answers to Questions on Naming Compounds and Writing Formulas 96 Chapter 7: Understanding the Many Uses of the Mole 101 The Mole Conversion Factor: Avogadro's Number 102 Doing Mass and Volume Mole Conversions 103 Determining Percent Composition 106 Calculating Empirical Formulas 107 Using Empirical Formulas to Find Molecular Formulas 109 Answers to Questions on Moles 111 Chapter 8: Getting a Grip on Chemical Equations 115 Translating Chemistry into Equations and Symbols 116 Balancing Chemical Equations 118 Recognizing Reactions and Predicting Products 120 Combination (synthesis) 120 Decomposition 120 Single replacement (single displacement) 121 Double replacement (double displacement) 121 Combustion 123 Canceling Spectator Ions: Net Ionic Equations 125 Answers to Questions on Chemical Equations 127 Chapter 9: Putting Stoichiometry to Work 129 Using Mole-Mole Conversions from Balanced Equations 130 Putting Moles at the Center: Conversions Involving Particles, Volumes, and Masses 132 Limiting Your Reagents 135 Counting Your Chickens after They've Hatched: Percent Yield Calculations 138 Answers to Questions on Stoichiometry 140 Part 3: Examining Changes in Terms of Energy 147 Chapter 10: Understanding States in Terms of Energy 149 Describing States of Matter with the Kinetic Molecular Theory 149 Make a Move: Figuring Out Phase Transitions and Diagrams 151 Answers to Questions on Changes of State 154 Chapter 11: Obeying Gas Laws 155 Boyle's Law: Playing with Pressure and Volume 156 Charles's Law and Absolute Zero: Looking at Volume and Temperature 157 The Combined and Ideal Gas Laws: Working with Pressure, Volume, and Temperature 159 Mixing It Up with Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures 162 Diffusing and Effusing with Graham's Law 163 Answers to Questions on Gas Laws 165 Chapter 12: Dissolving into Solutions 169 Seeing Different Forces at Work in Solubility 169 Concentrating on Molarity and Percent Solutions 172 Changing Concentrations by Making Dilutions 174 Altering Solubility with Temperature 175 Answers to Questions on Solutions 178 Chapter 13: Playing Hot and Cold: Colligative Properties 183 Portioning Particles: Molality and Mole Fractions 183 Too Hot to Handle: Elevating and Calculating Boiling Points 186 How Low Can You Go? Depressing and Calculating Freezing Points 188 Determining Molecular Masses with Boiling and Freezing Points 189 Answers to Questions on Colligative Properties 191 Chapter 14: Exploring Rates and Equilibrium 195 Measuring Rates 195 Focusing on Factors That Affect Rates 199 Measuring Equilibrium 201 The equilibrium constant 202 Free energy 203 Answers to Questions on Rates and Equilibrium 206 Chapter 15: Warming Up to Thermochemistry 209 Understanding the Basics of Thermodynamics 209 Working with Specific Heat Capacity and Calorimetry 212 Absorbing and Releasing Heat: Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions 214 Summing Heats with Hess's Law 216 Answers to Questions on Thermochemistry 218 Part 4: Swapping Charges 221 Chapter 16: Working with Acids and Bases 223 Surveying Three Complementary Methods for Defining Acids and Bases 224 Method 1: Arrhenius sticks to the basics 224 Method 2: Bronsted-Lowry tackles bases without a hydroxide ion 225 Method 3: Lewis relies on electron pairs 226 Measuring Acidity and Basicity: pH, pOH, and KW 228 Ka and Kb: Finding Strength through Dissociation 230 Answers to Questions on Acids and Bases 233 Chapter 17: Achieving Neutrality with Titrations and Buffers 237 Concentrating on Titration to Figure Out Molarity 238 Maintaining Your pH with Buffers 241 Measuring Salt Solubility with Ksp 244 Answers to Questions on Titrations and Buffers 245 Chapter 18: Accounting for Electrons in Redox 247 Oxidation Numbers: Keeping Tabs on Electrons 247 Balancing Redox Reactions under Acidic Conditions 250 Balancing Redox Reactions under Basic Conditions 252 Answers to Questions on Electrons in Redox 255 Chapter 19: Galvanizing Yourself to Do Electrochemistry 259 Identifying Anodes and Cathodes 259 Calculating Electromotive Force and Standard Reduction Potentials 263 Coupling Current to Chemistry: Electrolytic Cells 266 Answers to Questions on Electrochemistry 269 Chapter 20: Doing Chemistry with Atomic Nuclei 273 Decaying Nuclei in Different Ways 273 Alpha decay 274 Beta decay 274 Gamma decay 275 Measuring Rates of Decay: Half-Lives 276 Making and Breaking Nuclei: Fusion and Fission 277 Answers to Questions on Nuclear Chemistry 279 Part 5: The Part of Tens 281 Chapter 21: Ten Chemistry Formulas to Tattoo on Your Brain 283 Chapter 22: Ten Annoying Exceptions to Chemistry Rules 289 Index 295

About the Author

Christopher Hren is a high school chemistry teacher and former track and football coach. Peter J. Mikulecky, PhD, teaches biology and chemistry at Fusion Learning Center and Fusion Academy.

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