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Chemistry and Technology of Flavours and Fragrances


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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION. David J Rowe. History. The Classical World. The Mediaeval World. From the Renaissance to the Enlightment. The Industrial Age. The Post-War World. Technical factors:. Social factors. The Future. The Structure of the Flavour and Fragrance Industry. A Note on Regulations. A Note on Quality. IDENTIFICATION OF AROMA CHEMICALS. Neil C. Da Costa and Sanja Eri. Introduction. Isolation of Aroma Chemicals. Solvent Extraction. Extraction of liquid samples. Extraction of solid samples. Soxhlet Extraction. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE). Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE). Fractionation of solvent extracts. Concentration of solvent extracts. Solvent Assisted Flavor Evaporation (SAFE). Steam Distillation Methods. Headspace Techniques. Static Headspace. Dynamic Headspace. Direct Thermal Desorption (DTD). Sorptive techniques. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME). Headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) (commercially available as TwisterTM). Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). Techniques for identification of aroma compounds. A Case Study: Generessencea. Sample Preparation. Valencia Orange. Roast Chicken. Narcissus. Post-Analysis Work. References. FLAVOUR GENERATION IN FOOD. Liam O?Hare and John Grigor. Introduction. Taste and Aroma. Cooked Meat. Flavour Precursors. Lipid Oxidation and Degradation. Hydrolysis. Oxidation. Fatty Aldehydes as flavour compounds. Fatty Aldehydes (pentanal and hexanal) as flavour precursors. Other lipid derived flavour precursors. Fatty Aldehydes as "Flavour Moderators". Strecker Degradation. The Maillard Reaction. Caramelisation. Influence of Method of Cooking. Roasting Frying and Grilling. Pyrazines. Thiazoles. Thiophenes and Furans. Boiling. Reheating. Species Differences. Fermented Foods. Cheese. Lactose and citrate fermentation. Protein Degradation. Proteolysis. Metabolism of free amino acids. Cysteine and Methionine. Threonine. Arginine. Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine. Phenylalanine and Tyrosine. Tryptophan. Lipid Degradation. Oxidative degradation. Hydrolytic Degradation. Acids. Esters. Thioesters. Methyl Ketones and Secondary Alcohols. Lactones. Acknowledgments. References. AROMA CHEMICALS I: C,H,O COMPOUNDS. David J. Rowe. Introduction. Alcohols. Saturated Alkyl alcohols. Unsaturated alkyl alcohols. Complex Fragrance Alcohols. Aromatic and aralkyl alcohols. Phenolics. Acids. Saturated aliphatic acids. Unsaturated acids. Aromatic acids. Esters. Saturated. Unsaturated. Aromatic esters. Lactones ? gamma and delta. Synthesis of esters. Aldehydes. Aliphatic. Unsaturated. Acetals. Aromatics. Nitriles. Ketones. ?Carotenoids?; Ionones, Irones, Damascones and related compounds. Hydrocarbons. Acknowledgements. References. AROMA CHEMICALS II ? HETEROCYCLES. Michael Zviely. Introduction. Introduction to Heterocyclic Compounds. Terminology of Heterocycles. Non-aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds. Oxygen Containing Heterocyclic Aroma Chemicals. Oxiranes. Furans and Hydrofurans. Pyrans. Oxepins. Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Nitrogen and/or Sulphur. Non-Aromatic Molecules. Aromatic Molecules. Thiophene Derivatives. Pyrrole and Indole Derivatives. Pyridine and Quinoline Derivatives. Pyrazine and Quinoxaline Derivatives. Thiazole Derivatives. The Formation of Heterocyclic Compounds in Food. References and Notes. AROMA CHEMICALS III: SULPHUR COMPOUNDS. Simon B. Jameson. Thiols and Thioesters. Acyclic Sulphides and Polysulphides. Saturated Heterocyclic Sulphur Compounds. Quality and Stability. Acknowledgement. References. AROMA CHEMICALS IV: MUSKS. Philip Kraft,. . Introduction. Natural Musks. Nitro Musks. Pcm ? Polycyclic Aromatic Musks. Evolution Of The Industrial Synthesis Of Macrocycles. Modern Macrocyclic Musks. New Musk Structures. Acknowledgement. References. AROMA CHEMICALS V: NATURAL AROMA CHEMICALS. John Margetts. Introduction. The natural concept. Chirality. Isolation from natural sources such as essential oils. Biotechnology. Total Flavour Enhancement. Individual Flavour Chemicals. Alcohols. Carbonyls. Acids. Lactones. Esters. Green Notes. Pyrazines. Sulphur Compounds. Terpenoid and related Compounds. Vanillin. Precursors. Soft Chemistry. Conclusion. References. MOLECULES OF TASTE AND SENSATION. Mark L. Dewis,. Introduction. The Trigeminal Nerve System, Taste and Oral Receptors. The Trigeminal Nerve. Gustation. Oral Receptors. Chemesthesis. ?Sensates?; Compounds which provide a sensory effect. Tingle compounds. Cooling compounds. Pungent, warming and hot irritants. Astringency. Synergies. Closing comments on Compounds which provide a sensory effect. Taste active compounds. Sweeteners. Salt and enhancers. Sour agents. Bitter agents. Umami ?the fifth taste quality?. Conclusions. References. STABILITY OF AROMA CHEMICALS. Chris Winkel. Introduction. Flavour Stability. Flavour Precursors. Encapsulation. Analogues. Case Study 1: Citral And Vanillin Stability In Milk-Based Products. Case Study 2: Stability Of Thiols In An Aqueous Process Flavouring. Stability And Fragrance Applications. Conclusion. References. RATIONAL ODORANT DESIGN. Luca Turin. Introduction. Theories of olfaction. For Shape:. Plausibility. The nature of the receptors. Against Shape:. No predictive ability. Isosteric molecules smell different. "Strong" shape looks unlikely. "Weak" shape appears untestable. The chiral receptor problem. No odorant antagonists have been found. We smell functional groups. . For Vibration. Functional group recognition. isosteric molecules accounted for. Isotopes smell different (maybe). Enantiomers accounted for (differently). The Chiral Limit. Against vibration. Mechanism novel and unproven. Inability to account for odorant intensity. Rational design by shape. Rational design by vibration. Replacement molecules. Acitral (R). Lioral (R). 2 Prospects for the future. Acknowledgements. References:. APPLICATIONS I: FLAVOURS. David Baines & Jack Knights. Introduction. The Early Days of Flavour Analysis. The Role of the Flavourist. Liquid Flavourings. Water Soluble Liquid Flavourings. Solvents for Special Uses. Oil Soluble Liquid Flavourings. Emulsion Liquid Flavourings. Powder Flavours. Plating. Properties of plated flavours and spices. Spray Drying. Emulsification. Atomisation. Drying. Separation. Carriers and Encapsulating Agents. Spray Cooling. Yeast Encapsulation. Coacervation. Method of production. Properties of coacervated flavourings. Melt Extrusion. Method of production. Carriers. Properties of melt extruded flavourings. Molecular Encapsulation. Formulation Issues for the Flavourist. Flavour Creation. Influence of Foodstuff to be Flavoured. Influence of Legislation. Influence of Customer Requirements. . References. APPLICATIONS II: FRAGRANCE. Stephen J. Herman. Introduction. The basic structure of fragrances. The simplest case: Hydroalcoholics. Personal care applications: emulsions. Personal care applications: surfactants. Air fresheners. Candles. Reactive hair care. Depilatories. Dyes and Perms. Bleach. Malodor Counteractants. Stability testing. Conclusion. References. APPENDIX. David J Rowe

About the Author

Edited by Dr. David RoweDavid Rowe is Technical Manager at De Monchy Aromatics Ltd., Poole UK


"An overview of the synthesis, chemistry and application technology of the major classes of aroma compounds is presented...This book is essential reading for both experienced and graduate level entrants to the flavour and fragrance industry. It also serves as an important introduction to the subject for chemists and technologists in those industries that use flavours and fragrances e.g. food, cosmetics and toiletries and household products." CAB Abstracts, January 2005 "This book will immediately be a bible. Excellent references and index - a winner." Dr. A. Parsons, Food and Beverage Reporter

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