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Child Maltreatment
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Preface Acknowledgments Ch 1. History and Definitions of Child Maltreatment Children as Victims Child Maltreatment Within Families How Social Conditions Become Social Problems Discovering Child Maltreatment: The Historical Context Discovering Childhood Discovering Child Maltreatment Defining Child Maltreatment: Understanding the Social Construction-of-Deviance Definitions Parent-Child Violence: Four Conceptualizations Legitimate Versus Illegitimate Acts Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues Family Support and Training Programs School-Based Programs Community Awareness Campaigns Justice and Protection Treating Offenders and Victims Coordinated Community Responses Summary Goals of The Book Discussion Questions Notes Recommended Resources Ch 2. The Study of Child Maltreatment: Theoretical and Methodological Issues Determining the Extent of Child Maltreatment Official Estimates National Incidence Study (NIS) National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Self-Report Surveys Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) Section Summary Explaining Child Maltreatment Cultural and Social Structural Antecedents The Cultural Context Structural Characteristics of the Family Low Costs of Child Maltreatment Etiological Theory: Trying to Understand Abusive Behavior Social Ecology/Social Bonding Theories Social Class, Strain, and Frustration Social Learning Theories Attachment and Parent-Child Interaction Theories Psychopathology and Behavioral Traits Biological Factors Integrated Theories Process Theories Transactional Theories Section Summary Methodological Issues: Conducting Better Research Definitional Ambiguity Correlation Isn't Cause: Problems Establishing Cause-and-Effect Relationships Conducting Experiments Longitudinal Studies Comparison Groups When Correlation Comes Close to Cause: Two Examples Problems With Samples Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Notes Recommended Resources Ch 3. Child Physical Abuse Case History: Kevin Fell Off His Razor Scope of the Problem What is Physical Child Abuse? Legal Perspectives How Common is Physical Child Abuse? Official Estimates Self-Report Surveys Is the Rate of Physical Child Abuse Increasing? Section Summary Searching for Patterns: Victim, Perpetrator, and Social Ecological Characteristics Demographic Characteristics of Children Who Are Physically Abused Age Gender Socioeconomic Status Race Additional Characteristics Demographic Characteristics of Adults Who Physically Abuse Children Age Gender Relationship to the Abused Child Psychological and Biological Characteristics of Adults Who Physically Abuse Children Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics Biological Factors Social Ecological Factors Family Characteristics Family and Interpersonal Difficulties Parenting Problems Section Summary Consequences Associated With Child Physical Abuse Effects Associated With the Physical Abuse of Children Medical and Neurobiological Problems Cognitive Problems Behavioral Problems Socioemotional Difficulties Psychiatric Disorders Possible Long-Term Effects of Physical Abuse Criminal and Violent Behavior Substance Abuse Socioemotional Difficulties Mediators of Abuse Effects Section Summary Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues Intervention Strategies for Child Physical Abuse Treatment for Physically Abusive Adults Treatment for Children With Physical Abuse Histories Family Interventions Community Interventions Preventing Physical Abuse of Children Parental Competency Programs Community Awareness Campaigns Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Note Recommended Resources Ch 4. Child Sexual Abuse Case History: Sashim's Secret Scope of the Problem What is Child Sexual Abuse? Cultural Context Conceptual Issues Legal Issues Estimates of Child Sexual Abuse Official Estimates Self-Report Surveys Is Sexual Abuse Increasing or Decreasing? Section Summary Searching for Patterns: Victim, Perpetrator, and Social Ecological Characteristics Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children Age Gender Characteristics of Individuals Who Sexually Abuse Children Age Gender Relationship to the Abused Child Social Ecological Factors Section Summary Dynamics and Consequences Associated With Child Sexual Abuse Dynamics of Child Sexual Abuse Types of Sexual Activity Initiation of Abuse Maintenance of Abuse Exploitation Through the Internet Effects Associated With Child Sexual Abuse Initial Effects Long-Term Effects Explaining the Variability in Effects Section Summary Explaining Child Sexual Abuse Focus on the Abused Individual Focus on the Offender Deviant Sexual Arousal Childhood History of Sexual Abuse Contemporary Integrative Theories Focus on the Family Focus on Society and Culture Societal Attitudes Media Depictions Section Summary Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues Basic Issues in Treatment Intervention Therapy for Child and Adult Survivors Interventions for Children Interventions for Adults Treatment Interventions for Offenders Medical Approaches Traditional and Family Systems Approaches Cognitive and Behavioral Techniques Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Education Programs for Children The Parental Role in Child Empowerment Perpetration Prevention Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Resources Ch 5. Child Neglect Case History: Will and Mark: "Where are the Parents?" Scope of the Problem What is Child Neglect? Current Definitions Severity of Consequences Frequency and Duration Cultural Issues Forms of Neglect Estimates of Child Neglect Official Estimates Self-Report Surveys Section Summary Searching for Patterns: Characteristics of Neglected Children and Their Families Characteristics of Neglected Children Age Gender Race Characteristics of Neglecting Parents Demographic Characteristics Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics Social Ecological Factors Family Structure and Functioning Socioeconomic Status Community Integration and Social Support Section Summary Consequences Associated With Child Neglect Developmental Considerations Social and Attachment Difficulties Cognitive and Academic Deficits Emotional and Behavior Problems Physical Consequences Long-Term Consequences Section Summary Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues Treatment of Child Neglect Prevention of Child Neglect Home Visitation Programs Programs for Parents With High-Risk Children Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Resources Ch 6. Child Psychological Maltreatment Case History: Tough Love or Child Psychological Maltreatment? Scope of the Problem What is Child Psychological Maltreatment? Conceptual Issues Subtypes of Child Psychological Maltreatment Legal Issues Estimates of Child Psychological Maltreatment Official Estimates Self-Report Surveys Section Summary Searching for Patterns: Characteristics of Victims and Perpetrators Characteristics of Psychologically Maltreated Children Age and Gender Other Risk Factors Characteristics of Psychologically Maltreating Parents Age and Gender Psychosocial Qualities Section Summary Consequences Associated With Child Psychological Maltreatment Initial Effects Long-Term Effects Methodological Issues Pertaining to Effects Research Section Summary Practice, Policy, and Prevention Issues Interventions for Psychologically Maltreated Children Preventing Psychological Maltreatment Summary Discussion Questions Note Recommended Resources Ch 7. Additional Forms of Child Maltreatment Case History: The Disney World Girl Children Who Witness Violence Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence Estimates of the Problem Effects Associated With Children's Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence Methodological Issues Pertaining to Effects Research Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence Children Who Witness Community Violence Estimates of the Problem Effects Associated With Exposure to Community Violence Interventions for Children Exposed to Community Violence Section Summary Peer Violence and Victimization Sibling Abuse What is Sibling Abuse? Forms of Negative Sibling Interaction Estimates of the Problem Consequences Associated With Negative Sibling Interaction Characteristics of Siblings Who Inflict Harm Bullying What is Bullying? Estimates of the Problem Characteristics of Bullies and Victims Age Gender Psychological Characteristics Family- and School-Related Factors Intervention and Prevention Section Summary Institutional Child Maltreatment Estimates of the Problem Forms of Institutional Child Maltreatment Consequences Associated With Institutional Child Maltreatment Responses to Institutional Child Maltreatment Section Summary Organized Exploitation Child Sex Rings Child Pornography Child Prostitution Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Note Recommended Resources Ch 8. Key Issues in Responding to Child Maltreatment Child Welfare Responses to Child Maltreatment The Role of Child Protective Services Out-of-Home Care Legislation Affecting Child Welfare Legal System Responses to Child Maltreatment Children and the Legal System Prosecuting Individuals Who Abuse Children Cultural and International Issues in Child Maltreatment Estimates of Child Maltreatment Outside North America Cultural Differences and Child Maltreatment Cultural Sensitivity in Addressing the Problem of Child Maltreatment Collateral Effects of Child Maltreatment Impact of Child Maltreatment on Professionals Who Work With Victims Treatment and Prevention of Collateral Effects of Child Maltreatment Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Resources Ch 9. Controversial Issues in the Study of Child Maltreatment Concern and Debate About Alleged False Allegations Childhood Fabrications Memory Wars: Repressed and Recovered Memories Is Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence (IVP) a Form of Child Maltreatment? Are Some Cases of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Actually Infanticide? Justice and Protection Controversies Mandatory Reporting Community Notification Laws Corporal Punishment Family Preservation Versus Out-of-Home Care Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Notes Recommended Resources Ch 10. Advancing the Field of Child Maltreatment Methodological and Theoretical Limitations and Solutions Improving on Methodological Limitations to Research in the Field Debates About Child Maltreatment Definitions Studying the Causes of Child Maltreatment Unifying the Field of Child Maltreatment Competing Claims and Interests of Professionals The Co-Occurrence of Multiple Forms of Victimization Comparative Effects of Different Subtypes and Combinations of Child Maltreatment Additional Areas of Integrative Research Claims Making Versus Science: Balancing Passion and Empiricism Within the Field of Child Maltreatment Feeding Public Distrust of Social Science Feeding the Backlash Blurring Definitional Boundaries Achieving Balance Chapter Summary Discussion Questions Recommended Resources Ch 11. What You Can Do To Help Condemning Cultural Acceptance of Violence The Media and Violence Questioning Culturally Accepted Violence Within the Family Advocating for a Public Policy Commitment to the Prevention of Child Maltreatment Financially Committing to Family Protection Addressing Social Problems That Contribute to Child Maltreatment Committing to Primary Prevention Child Maltreatment as a Public Health Issue Find What Works to Prevent Maltreatment and Invest in It Joining, Giving, Volunteering, Speaking Out Becoming a Court-Appointed Special Advocate (CASA) Volunteer Foster Parenting Adopting Chapter Summary Notes Appendix References Glossary Index About the Authors

About the Author

Cindy L. Miller-Perrin is currently Professor of Psychology and Blanche E. Seaver Professor of Social Science at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California. She is also a clinical child psychologist and has worked with developmentally delayed, maltreated, and other troubled children and their families. She has coauthored three books, including Child Sexual Abuse: Sharing the Responsibility (with S. Wurtele, 1992), Child Maltreatment: An Introduction (with R. Perrin, Sage, 1999, 2007), and Family Violence Across the Lifespan (with O. Barnett & R. Perrin, Sage 1997, 2005, 2011). She is also the author or coauthor of numerous articles and book chapters on topics including child sexual abuse prevention, perceptions associated with child maltreatment, family violence, and psychology and religion. She enjoys teaching and researching with undergraduates and is the recipient of the 2008 Howard A. White Award for Teaching Excellence. She received her doctorate from Washington State University. Robin D. Perrin is currently Professor of Sociology at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California. His research interests and publications are in the areas of interpersonal violence, deviance theory, the social construction of social problems, and the sociology of religion. He is the coauthor of three books: Social Deviance: Being, Behaving, and Branding (with D. Ward & T. Carter, 1991), Child Maltreatment: An Introduction (with C. Miller-Perrin, Sage, 1999; 2007), and Family Violence Across the Lifespan (with O. Barnett & C. Miller-Perrin, Sage, 1997, 2005; 2011). He is the author or coauthor of numerous articles on a variety of topics related to religion, deviance, and interpersonal violence. He is the recipient of the 2004 Howard A. White Award for Teaching Excellence. He received his doctorate in sociology from Washington State University in 1989. Following his doctoral studies he was Assistant Professor of Sociology at Seattle Pacific University in Seattle, Washington.

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