Preface xiCHAPTER 1The Role of Assessment inTeaching 1Integrating Instruction and Assessment 3The Realities of Teaching 3Instructional Decision Making and Assessment 5What Is Classroom Assessment? 9Purpose 9Measurement 10Evaluation 11Use 12Diagnosis 12Grading 12Instruction 12Research on Learning, Motivation,Instruction, and Curriculum: Implicationsfor Assessment 13Recent Trends in Classroom Assessment 15The Influence of Large-Scale AccountabilityTesting 19Teachers' Classroom Assessment andGrading Practices Decision Making 21Assessment Standards for Teachers 23? Summary 24? What's Coming 24? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 25? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 26? Suggestions for Action Research 26CHAPTER 2Cognitive Learning Targetsand Standards 28Knowing Where Your Students AreGoing 29Educational Goals 29Objectives 29Standards 31Criteria 34Expectations 35Learning Targets 36Taxonomies of EducationalObjectives 38Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives 38Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Objectives 40Marzano and Kendall's New Taxonomy 40Types of Knowledge Targets 42Knowledge Representation 42Declarative Knowledge and Understanding 45Procedural Knowledge and Understanding 45Deep Understanding and Reasoning 46Sources for Learning Targets 48Professional Preparation 48Textbooks 49Existing Lists of Objectives 50National and State Standards 51Criteria for Selecting Learning Targetsand Standards 53CONTENTS88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page iii? Summary 55? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 56? Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises 57? Suggestions for Action Research 58CHAPTER 3High-Quality ClassroomAssessment 60What Is High-Quality ClassroomAssessment? 61Clear and Appropriate Learning Targets 61Alignment of Assessment Methodsand Learning Targets 62Types of Assessment Methods 62Matching Targets with Methods 65Knowledge and Simple Understanding 65Deep Understanding and Reasoning 66Skills 67Products 67Affect 67Validity 68What Is a Valid Assessment? 68How Is Validity Determined? 68Content-Related Evidence 69Criterion-Related Evidence 71Construct-Related Evidence 72Reliability 73What Is a Reliable Score? 73Assessment Error 75How Is Reliability Determined? 77Sources of Reliability Evidence 77Evidence Based on Stability 77Evidence Based on Equivalent Forms 77Evidence Based on Internal Consistency 78Evidence Based on Scorer or Rater Consistency 78Evidence Based on Decision Consistency 80Factors Influencing Reliability Estimates 80Fairness 80Student Knowledge of Learning Targets andAssessments 81Opportunity to Learn 81Prerequisite Knowledge and Skills 82Avoiding Student Stereotyping 82Avoiding Bias in Assessment Tasks andProcedures 82Accommodating Special Needs and EnglishLanguage Learners 84A Model of Fairness in Classroom Assessment 84Positive Consequences 86Positive Consequences for Students 86Positive Consequences for Teachers 88Alignment 88Practicality and Efficiency 91Teacher Familiarity with the Method 91Time Required 91Complexity of Administration 92Ease of Scoring 92Ease of Interpretation 92Cost 93? Summary 93? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 94? Answers to Self-Instructional Review Exercises 95? Suggestions for Action Research 96? Endnote 97CHAPTER 4Formative Assessment I:Gathering Evidence 98What Is Formative Assessment? 99Gathering Informal Formative AssessmentEvidence 102iv C O N T E N T SN88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page ivInformal Formative Assessment Observation 103Assessing Nonverbal Behavior 103Assessing Voice-Related Cues 108Beginning of Year Observations 111Sources of Error in Informal Observation 112Informal Oral Questioning 114Characteristics of Effective Questioning to AssessStudent Progress 115Formal Formative Assessment 120Preinstructional Structured Exercises 121Pretests 121Homework 122In-Class Assignments 123Quizzes and Unit Tests 123Classroom Response Systems 124Benchmark Assessments 125Teacher Expectations 126? Summary 128? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 129? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 130? Suggestions for Action Research 132CHAPTER 5Formative Assessment II:Feedback and InstructionalAdjustments 133Providing Effective Feedback 134Types of Feedback 135Goal Directed 135Scaffolded 136Self-Referenced 137Standards-Referenced 138Norm-Referenced 138Factors to Consider in Determining theNature of the Feedback 139Amount 139Timing 140Mode 141Audience 141Type of Task 141Differentiated Formative Feedback 142Learner Level of Ability 142Grade Level 143Subject 143Anticipating Feedback 144What About Giving Praise? 145Instructional Adjustments 147Mastery Learning 148Differentiated Instruction 149Learning Progressions 150A Model of Instructional Adjustments forFormative Feedback 152? Summary 152? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 154? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 154? Suggestions for Action Research 155CHAPTER 6Planning and ImplementingClassroom SummativeAssessments 156Planning and Summative Assessment 158Representative Sampling 158Number and Length of Assessments 159Use of Assessments Provided by Textbook andTest Publishers 160Preparing Students for Summative Assessments 161C O N T E N T S v88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page vScheduling the Summative Assessment 162When Summative Assessments Should BeConstructed 162Putting Summative AssessmentsTogether 165Preparing Test Directions 165Arranging Items 166Physical Layout 166Administering Summative Assessments 166Unit/Chapter Tests 167? Summary 168? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 169? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 169? Suggestions for Action Research 170CHAPTER 7Selected-ResponseAssessment: MultipleChoice, Binary Choice, andMatching 171Multiple-Choice Items 172Assessing Knowledge and Comprehension 176Assessing Application 177Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning 179Binary-Choice Items 181Assessing Knowledge and Comprehension 182Assessing Deep Understanding andReasoning 184Assessing Application 185Matching Items 186Interpretive Exercises 188Assessing Comprehension 190Assessing Deep Understanding and Reasoning 191? Summary 193? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 193? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 194? Suggestions for Action Research 196CHAPTER 8Constructed-ResponseAssessment: Completion,Short-Answer, and EssayItems 197Completion Items 198Short-Answer Items 200Assessing Knowledge and Comprehension 200Assessing Deep Understanding andReasoning 202Essay Items 204Constructing Essay Items 209Scoring Essays 212? Summary 215? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 216? Answers to Self-Instructional Review Items 217? Suggestions for Action Research 218? Endnote 218CHAPTER 9Constructed-ResponseAssessment: PerformanceAssessment 219What Is Performance Assessment? 220Strengths and Limitations of PerformanceAssessments 221Learning Targets for PerformanceAssessments 224Deep Understanding 224Reasoning 224vi C O N T E N T SN88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page viSkills 224Communication and Presentations Skills 224Psychomotor Skills 226Products 228Constructing Performance Tasks 229Restricted- and Extended-Type PerformanceTasks 229Performance Task Descriptions and Contexts 231Performance Task Question or Prompt 232Performance Criteria 239Rubrics 240Rating Scales 240Developing Rubrics 243? Summary 251? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 253? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 254? Suggestions for Action Research 255? Endnote 255CHAPTER 10Constructed-ResponseAssessment: Portfolios 256What Are Portfolios? 257Advantages 259Disadvantages 261Planning for Portfolio Assessment 262Purpose 263Learning Targets 263Uses 264Identify Physical Structure 265Determine Sources of Content 265Determine Student Self-Reflective Guidelines andScoring Criteria 265Implementing Portfolio Assessment 268Review with Students 268Supplying Portfolio Content 268Student Self-Reflection 270Teacher Evaluation 274Checklists of Contents 274Portfolio Structure Evaluation 274Evaluations of Individual Entries 276Evaluation of Entire Contents 276Student-Teacher Conferences 277Electronic Portfolios 278? Summary 280? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 281? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 282? Suggestions for Action Research 283CHAPTER 11Assessing AffectiveTraits, Dispositions, andBeliefs 284Are Affective and Student Belief TargetsImportant? 285What Are Affective Traits and LearningTargets? 287Attitude Targets 288Value Targets 289Motivation Targets 290Academic Self-Concept Targets 291Social Relationship Targets 291Classroom Environment Targets 292Affective Domain of the Taxonomy of EducationalObjectives 294Methods of Assessing Affective Targets 294Teacher Observation 296Unstructured Observation 297Structured Observation 298Student Self-Report 300Student Interview 300C O N T E N T S vii88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page viiQuestionnaires and Surveys 302Constructed-Response Formats 302Selected-Response Formats 303Constructing Self-Report Items 309Student Self-Assessment 310Peer Ratings 317Guess-Who Approach 318Sociometric Approach 318Which Method or Combination of MethodsShould I Use? 319Ensuring Anonymity 320? Summary 322? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 323? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 324? Suggestions for Action Research 325CHAPTER 12Assessing Special Needsand ELL Students 326Assessing Students with Special Needs 327Legal Mandates 327Assessing Students for Identification 330Mild Mental Retardation 333Sensory Impairment 333Physical Impairment 334Learning Disability 334Emotional Disturbance 334Attention Deficits 335Hyperactivity 335Assessment Problems Encountered byStudents with Special Needs 336Comprehension Difficulties 338Auditory Difficulties 339Visual Difficulties 339Time Constraint Difficulties 339Anxiety 340Embarrassment 340Variability of Behavior 340Assessment Accommodations 340Adaptations in Test Directions, Construction,and Format 341Short-Answer and Essay Items 342Multiple-Choice Items 344Binary-Choice Items 344Completion Items 344Performance Assessments 345Portfolios 345Adaptations in Test Administration 346Adaptations in Testing Site 346Grading and ReportingAccommodations 348Grading Accommodations 349IEP Grading 349Shared Grading 349Contracting 350Reporting Accommodations 351English Language Learners in InclusiveSettings 352Factors Influencing ELL Assessments 352Language and Literacy Skill Factors 352Educational Background Factors 353Cultural Factors 353Identifying Difficulties that ELL Students Experiencein Classroom Assessment 353Difficulty in Comprehending Test Language 353Difficulty in Expressing What Is Known 354Lack of Content and Cultural Knowledgein Test Items 354Unfamiliarity with DifferentTypes of Tests 354Emotional Stress 355Assessment Accommodations andModifications 355Test Format 355Test-Taking Procedures 356Evaluating Performance and ProvidingFeedback 356? Summary 357viii C O N T E N T SN88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page viii? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 358? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 360? Suggestions for Action Research 362CHAPTER 13Grading and ReportingStudent Performance 363Teachers' Judgments in Grading 364Functions of Marking and Grading 367Providing Feedback 367Basis of Comparison 369Norm-Referenced Grading 369Standards-Based Grading 370Motivation 372Incorporating Factors Other ThanPerformance 374Aptitude 375Improvement 375Effort 376Attendance 377Attitudes 378Approaches to Marking andGrading 378Letter Grades 378Percentage Correct 380Pass-Fail 382Rubrics/Checklists 382Standards-Based 383Written Descriptions 384Mixed Methods 385Determining Report Card (Composite)Grades 385Select What to Include in the FinalGrade 386Select Weights for Each Assessment 387Combining Different Scores and Grades 389Weighted Categories versus Total PointsMethods 389Using Judgment when Combining Grades 392Cheating 393Recognizing Teacher Fallibility 393Reporting Student Progress to Parents 395Report Cards 396Progress Reports 396Parent-Teacher Conferences 397Student-Led Conferences 398? Summary 398? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 400? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 401? Suggestions for Action Research 401CHAPTER 14Administering,Interpreting, and UsingStandardized and StateStandards-Based Tests 403Fundamental Descriptive Statistics 403Frequency Distributions 404Measures of Central Tendency 406Measures of Variability 407Measures of Relationship 409Scatterplot 410Correlation Coefficient 410Types of Standardized Tests 411Norm-Referenced Achievement TestBatteries 413Aptitude Tests 414Readiness Tests 415Standards-Based State and District Tests 415Benchmark Assessments 417C O N T E N T S ix88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page ixTypes of Derived Standardized TestScores 418Standard Scores 418Z-Score 418Normal Curve Equivalent 419Stanines 419Scaled Score 420Deviation IQ Scores 420Other Standard Scores 420Grade Equivalent Scores 421Interpreting Standardized and StateStandards-Based Test Scores 421Standard Error of Measurement 421Alignment 423Standards-Based/Criterion-ReferencedInterpretations 423Understanding Standardized and Standards-Based Test Score Reports 425Using Standardized and Standards-Based/Criterion-Referenced Test Scores 426Interpreting Test Reports for Parents 429Preparing Students to Take StandardizedTests 431Administering Standardized and Standards-Based Tests 436? Summary 437? Self-Instructional Review Exercises 438? Answers to Self-Instructional ReviewExercises 439? Suggestions for Action Research 440APPENDICESA The Scope of a Teacher's ProfesionalRole and Responsibilities for StudentAssessment 441B The Student Evaluation Standards 445Glossary 448References 453Index 461x C O N T E N T SN88422 00 i-xiv r2 th 7/22/10 9:05 PM Page x
James H. McMillan is professor and chair of foundations of education at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia, where he teaches educational research and assessment courses and directs the Research and Evaluation Track of the PhD in education program. He is also director of the Metropolitan Ed ucational Research Consortium, a partnership of Virginia Commonwealth University and seven Richmond-area school divisions that conducts and disseminates action and applied research. His current research interests include classroom and large-scale assessment. He has recently published the third edition of Classroom Assessment: Principles and Practice for Effective Standards-Based Instruction and edited Formative Classroom Assessment: Theory into Practice. He has authored three educa tional research methods textbooks and published numerous articles in journals, including the American Educational Research Journal, the Journal of Educational Psychology, Contemporary Educational Psychology, and Educa tional Measurement: Issues and Practice.