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Clinical Research in Occupational Therapy
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Table of Contents

1. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN MEDICINE, REHABILITATION, AND HABILITATION. Definition and Purposes of Research in Occupational Therapy and Special Education. Historical Review of Research in Medicine, Rehabilitation, and Habilitation. Biological Description, Stage I. Methodological Process, Stage II. Etiological Advances, Stage III. Prevention, Stage IV. Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Hospital Care: The Bases of Treatment, Stage V. Rehabilitation Movement, Stage VI. Habilitation and Special Education, Stage VII. Research and the Future of Health Care. 2. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND RESEARCH MODELS. Science, Research, and Theory. Fallacies Related to Research. Critical Analysis of the Research Process. Qualities of a Researcher. Nomothetic Versus Idiographic Methods. Types of Inquiry. Models of Research. 3. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH MODELS. Factors in Quantitative Research Models. Experimental Research. Methodological Research. Evaluation Research. Heuristic Research. Correlational Research. Survey Research. Summary. 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH MODELS. Defining Qualitative Research. Characteristics of Qualitative Research. Types of Qualitative Research. Collecting Qualitative Data. Analyzing Qualitative Data. Credibility in Qualitative Research. 5. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM. The Need for Problem-Oriented Research in the Health Professions. Selecting a Significant Research Problem. Identifying Problems Resulting From a Disability. Identifying Significant Issues in Professional Education. Justifying the Research Problem. Narrowing the Investigation. Psychological Blocks in Selection of a Research Problem. Worksheet Guide for Selecting a Research Problem. Why Research Proposals Are Disapproved. 6. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. The Need for a Literature Review. Conceptual View of a Literature Search. Locating Sources of Related Literature. Recording Information from Research Articles. Evaluating Validity of Research Findings. Outlining the Literature Review Section. Worksheet for Literature Review. 7. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY. Proposing a Feasible Research Question. Statement of Hypothesis. Operationally Defining a Variable. Stating Assumptions. Diagrammatical Relationship between Variables. Theoretical Rationale. Internal Validity. Methods Section. Selection of Participants. Size of Sample. Selection of Measuring Instrument. Ethical Principles Guiding Human Research. Data Collection Procedures. Methodological Limitations of a Study. 8. DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS. Definition and Meaning of Statistics. Relationship of Statistics to Clinical Practice. Key Definitions of Statistical Concepts. Seven Statistical Models for Clinical Research. Model I: Descriptive Statistics: Organization and Tabulation of Descriptive Data. Inferential Statistics and Testing a Hypothesis. Model II: One-Sample Problems (One-Sample t Test). Model III: Two Independent Groups. Model IV: Paired Data Sample. Model V: k-Independent Samples. Model VI: Correlation (Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficients). Model VII: Observed Frequencies (Chi-Square). Statistical Software Packages. Summary. 9 SELECTING A TEST INSTRUMENT. Key Concepts in Testing. Early History of Test Development. Outline of Overall Evaluative Process of Testing. Characteristics of a Good Test in Clinical Research. Assumptions in Clinical Evaluation. Major Purposes of Testing in Clinical Research. Conceptual Model for Selecting a Test Instrument for Clinical Research. Bibliographic Sources. Test Instruments. Reviewing and Evaluating Tests. Criterion-References Tests and Normative-Referenced Tests. Test Publishers. Ethical Considerations in Testing. Conclusion. 10. SCIENTIFIC WRITING AND THESIS PREPARATION. Preparation for Writing. Outlining the Research Study. Writing the First Draft. Making Revisions. Quotations, Referenced Material, and Bibliographic Citations. Format of a Paper. Sample Proposal of a Graduate Research Project. Preparation for Presentation. Conclusion. Appendix A-l Web Addresses of Selected Professional Associations. Appendix A-2 Selected List of Consumer Health Organizations. Appendix A-3 Commonly Used Medical Abbreviations. Appendix B Landmarks in the History of Occupational Therapy. Appendix C Statistical Tables Glossary. References. Index.

About the Author

Martin Rice is currently a Professor at The University of Toledo. Dr. Rice received his Ph.D. in 1996 in Motor Learning and Control and his B.S. in 1984 in Rehabilitation Education from The Pennsylvania State University. In 1987 he received his M.S. in Occupational Therapy from the Western Michigan University.. Dr. Rice has served on the editorial boards of AJOT and OTI, and has served as a reviewer for several other peer-reviewed journals. He has published over 3 dozen research papers and has given over 100 presentations nationally and internationally. He completed a sabbatical at the Sheffield Hallam University where he studied safe patient handling practices within the United Kingdom. Susan K. Cutler, Ph.D., NCSP, ABSNP, received a Ph.D. in special education with a minor in neuropsychology from the University of New Mexico in 1993. Although she has recently retired from teaching at the university level, she will continue to work in private practice as a school psychologist. At present, she assesses students in an Ojibwe tribal school and at charter schools in Northern Minnesota. She holds national certification in school psychology and is pursuing further training in the field of school neuropsychology. Dr. Cutler is a national and international conference speaker in the field of special education, and assessment. Her focus is on helping parents and teachers use formal and informal assessment to develop appropriate educational programs and interventions for students who struggle in school. She has co-authored three books with Frank Stein.

Reviews

1. A SHORT HISTORY OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN MEDICINE, REHABILITATION, AND HABILITATION. Definition and Purposes of Research in Occupational Therapy and Special Education. Historical Review of Research in Medicine, Rehabilitation, and Habilitation. Biological Description, Stage I. Methodological Process, Stage II. Etiological Advances, Stage III. Prevention, Stage IV. Chemotherapy, Surgery, and Hospital Care: The Bases of Treatment, Stage V. Rehabilitation Movement, Stage VI. Habilitation and Special Education, Stage VII. Research and the Future of Health Care. 2. THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD AND RESEARCH MODELS. Science, Research, and Theory. Fallacies Related to Research. Critical Analysis of the Research Process. Qualities of a Researcher. Nomothetic Versus Idiographic Methods. Types of Inquiry. Models of Research. 3. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH MODELS. Factors in Quantitative Research Models. Experimental Research. Methodological Research. Evaluation Research. Heuristic Research. Correlational Research. Survey Research. Summary. 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH MODELS. Defining Qualitative Research. Characteristics of Qualitative Research. Types of Qualitative Research. Collecting Qualitative Data. Analyzing Qualitative Data. Credibility in Qualitative Research. 5. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM. The Need for Problem-Oriented Research in the Health Professions. Selecting a Significant Research Problem. Identifying Problems Resulting From a Disability. Identifying Significant Issues in Professional Education. Justifying the Research Problem. Narrowing the Investigation. Psychological Blocks in Selection of a Research Problem. Worksheet Guide for Selecting a Research Problem. Why Research Proposals Are Disapproved. 6. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. The Need for a Literature Review. Conceptual View of a Literature Search. Locating Sources of Related Literature. Recording Information from Research Articles. Evaluating Validity of Research Findings. Outlining the Literature Review Section. Worksheet for Literature Review. 7. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY. Proposing a Feasible Research Question. Statement of Hypothesis. Operationally Defining a Variable. Stating Assumptions. Diagrammatical Relationship between Variables. Theoretical Rationale. Internal Validity. Methods Section. Selection of Participants. Size of Sample. Selection of Measuring Instrument. Ethical Principles Guiding Human Research. Data Collection Procedures. Methodological Limitations of a Study. 8. DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS. Definition and Meaning of Statistics. Relationship of Statistics to Clinical Practice. Key Definitions of Statistical Concepts. Seven Statistical Models for Clinical Research. Model I: Descriptive Statistics: Organization and Tabulation of Descriptive Data. Inferential Statistics and Testing a Hypothesis. Model II: One-Sample Problems (One-Sample t Test). Model III: Two Independent Groups. Model IV: Paired Data Sample. Model V: k-Independent Samples. Model VI: Correlation (Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficients). Model VII: Observed Frequencies (Chi-Square). Statistical Software Packages. Summary. 9 SELECTING A TEST INSTRUMENT. Key Concepts in Testing. Early History of Test Development. Outline of Overall Evaluative Process of Testing. Characteristics of a Good Test in Clinical Research. Assumptions in Clinical Evaluation. Major Purposes of Testing in Clinical Research. Conceptual Model for Selecting a Test Instrument for Clinical Research. Bibliographic Sources. Test Instruments. Reviewing and Evaluating Tests. Criterion-References Tests and Normative-Referenced Tests. Test Publishers. Ethical Considerations in Testing. Conclusion. 10. SCIENTIFIC WRITING AND THESIS PREPARATION. Preparation for Writing. Outlining the Research Study. Writing the First Draft. Making Revisions. Quotations, Referenced Material, and Bibliographic Citations. Format of a Paper. Sample Proposal of a Graduate Research Project. Preparation for Presentation. Conclusion. Appendix A-l Web Addresses of Selected Professional Associations. Appendix A-2 Selected List of Consumer Health Organizations. Appendix A-3 Commonly Used Medical Abbreviations. Appendix B Landmarks in the History of Occupational Therapy. Appendix C Statistical Tables Glossary. References. Index.

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