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The growing importance of the sciences in industrialised societies has been acknowledged by the increasing number of studies concerned with their development, change and control. In the past 20 or so years there has been a considerable growth in teaching and research programmes dealing with science and technology policy, science and society, sociology and history of science and similar areas which has resulted in much new material about the production and validation of scientific knowledge. In addition to the quanti- tative growth of this literature, there has also been a substantial shift in the problems addressed and approaches adopted. In particular, the substantive content of scientific knowledge has become the focus of many historical and sociological studies which seek to understand how knowledges develop and change in different social circumstances. Instead of taking the privileged epistemological status of scientific knowledge for granted, recent approaches have emphasised the socially contingent nature of knowledge production and validation and the pluralistic nature of the sciences. Parallel to these develop- ments, there has been a shift in the treatment of science by the state, business and public pressure groups. Increasingly they have sought to control the direction of research, and thus the content of knowledge, directly rather than simply applying existing knowledge. Science has become amenable to social control and influence. Its sacred status has declined and it is increasingly viewed as a socially constituted phenomenon which can be studied in a similar manner to other cultural products.
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Table of Contents

One: Introduction to the Cognitive View.- 1. The Development of the Cognitive View.- Perception, Pattern Recognition and Picture-processing.- Communication and Language Processing.- The Generic Scheme.- 2. World Views and Models.- The Multiplicity of World Views.- The Simplest Model of a World View.- `Self' and `I' as Parts of a World View.- World Views as Social Entities.- Combination and Interaction of World Views.- Information Processing and Views on Science.- A Prefatory Task.- 3. Positivism as a Monadic View.- Positivism and Scientism.- Empiristic Units of Knowledge.- Helmholtz's Cognitive Model.- Scientistic Metaphysics.- From Dualism to Neutral Monism.- The Status of Concepts.- Scientific Concepts: Clusters of Monads.- 4. Logical Positivism: A Structural View.- The Structure of Natural Language.- The Logical Reconstruction of Language.- The Emphasis on Structure.- The Logical Positivist Model of Scientific Theory.- Logical Positivist Philosophy of Science.- 5. Contexts of Science: Sciences of Science.- Merton's Norms of Science.- Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors.- The Personality of the Scientist.- The Multiplicity of Arguments in the History of Science.- The Multiplicity of Scopes in History of Science.- The Science of Science.- 6. The Cognitive View on Science: Paradigms.- An Integrated Approach to the Copernican Revolution.- The Standard Account of the Kuhnian Model.- Paradigms as Cognitive Units.- Conceptual Schemes and the Functions of Paradigms.- Disciplinary Matrix and Exemplar.- The Social Nature of Paradigms.- Paradigm-studies.- Two: The Social Structure of Science.- 7. Bibliometrics and the Structure of Science.- Bibliometrics and Research on Science.- The Growth of Science.- The Detection of Growth Points and Secondary Literature.- The Metabolism of Growth and Primary Literature.- Citation Networks.- Co-citation Clustering.- Bibliometrics and Scientometrics.- 8. Informal Groups and the Origin of Networks.- Invisible Colleges and Specialties.- Characteristics of Invisible Colleges.- Invisible Colleges and Small Groups.- Communication Patterns and Information Flow.- Interdisciplinarity and the Origin of Specialties.- Migrations into Psychology: Two Examples.- Innovation and Discipleship.- 9. The Life Cycle of Scientific Specialties.- The Stages of the Specialty Life Cycle.- Regulative Mechanisms and Growth.- Finalization: Cognitive and Social in Sequence?.- Escalatory Expansion of Diffusion Studies.- Forms of Specialties and Patterns of Life Cycles.- Social Studies of Science.- Three: Cognitive Structure and Dynamics of Science.- 10. Paradigms and the Psychology of Attention and Perception.- Gestalt Perception and Gestalt Switch as Exemplars.- Perception and Selective Attention.- A Stratified Model of Perception.- Interactive and Integrative Processes in Perception.- Analysis of a Gestalt Switch in Science: Harvey's Discovery.- 11. Puzzle-solving and Reorganization of World Views.- Frames.- Defaults and Exemplars.- Problem-solving and Debugging.- Puzzle-solving and Heterarchical Control.- Procedural Aspects of Scientific Knowledge.- Self-world Segmentation and Compatibility of World Views.- Paradigms and Perspectives.- 12. Conservation and the Dynamics of Conceptual Systems.- Scientific Knowledge and Children's Concepts.- Action and Adaptation.- Table Tennis Ball Expertise.- Piaget's Stages and the Finalization-model.- Conservation and Closure of Conceptual Systems.- Harvey: Conservation of the Blood?.- Perspectives on an Object.- Paradigms and Development.- Individual Discovery and Social Success.- Epilogue.- Notes.

Reviews

`He (De Mey) has brought together an unusually wide range of material, and suggested some interesting lines of thought, about what should be an important application of cognitive science: The understanding of science itself.' Cognition and Brain Theory `...a valuable contribution to the literature of cognitive science, computer science, information science, sciences of science, philosophy and the social sciences generally.' Scientometrics `Every serious student of the social phenomenon of science is (therefore) advised to read this book with the closest attention.' 4 S Review

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