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Communities and Ecosystems
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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 Chapter 2: The Soil Food Web: Biotic Interactions and Regulators 7 Controls: Top Down, Bottom Up, and Productivity 9 Regulation by Resources and Predation in Soil Food Webs 16 Litter Transformers, Ecosystem Engineers, and Mutualisms 37 The Functionality of Soil Food Webs 43 Stability and Temporal Variability 48 Synthesis 53 Chapter 3: Plant Species Control of Soil Biota and Processes 56 Plant Species Effects on Soil Biota 57 Links among Plant Species, Soil Biota, and Soil Processes 68 Temporal and Spatial Variability 73 Plant Traits, Strategies, and Ecophysiological Constraints 83 Soil Biotic Responses to Vegetation Succession 97 Synthesis 103 Chapter 4: Belowground Consequences of Aboveground Food Web Interactions 105 Individual Plant Effects 106 Dung and Urine Return 114 Effects of Palatability Differences among Plant Species 117 Spatial and Temporal Variability 130 Consequences of Predation of Herbivores 132 Transport of Resources by Aboveground Consumers 134 Synthesis 136 Chapter 5: Completing the Circle: How Soil Food Web Effects Are Manifested Aboveground 138 The Decomposer Food Web 140 Nitrogen Transformations 152 Microbial Associates of Plant Roots 157 Root Herbivores 169 Physical Effects of Soil Biota 173 Soil Biotic Effects on Aboveground Food Webs 175 Synthesis 181 Chapter 6: The Regulation and Function of Biological Diversity 183 Assessment of Soil Diversity 184 Stress and Disturbance as Controls of Soil Diversity 187 Biotic Controls of Diversity 194 The Enigma of Soil Diversity 203 Diversity of Soil Organisms over Larger Spatial Scales 205 Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function 209 Synthesis 236 Chapter 7: Global Change Phenomena in an Aboveground-Belowground Context 239 Species Losses and Gains 240 Land Use Changes 253 Carbon Dioxide Enrichment and Nitrogen Deposition 265 Global Climate Change 281 Synthesis 292 Chapter 8: Underlying Themes 295 References 309 Index 387

Promotional Information

After a long phase of specialization and splinter, ecologists are again converging on the ecosystem. In this book, David Wardle shows that he is qualified by experience and instinct to play a leading role in this exciting quest. -- J. P. Grime, University of Sheffield Over much of the twentieth century, there has been a disconnect between studies of above-ground and below-ground organisms at both the community and ecosystem levels. Many of the below-ground studies proceeded in relative isolation or were treated by ecologists at a 'black box' level. David Wardle's new book is truly a quantum leap forward in uniting studies of terrestrial ecosystems. It explains the concepts and mechanisms of community and ecosystem processes within the framework of a masterful review and synthesis of the world literature--leading us toward an ecological 'unified field theory' (pun intended). -- David C. Coleman, University of Georgia This book is a benchmark and bellwether for a large volume of science that is being and will be conducted in this decade. It will be of value to both those scientists with casual interests in the topic and to the experts, because it provides short summaries and syntheses of findings as well as an in-depth analysis of available data. -- Timothy Seastedt, University of Colorado

About the Author

David A. Wardle is Professor of Soil and Plant Ecology at the University of Sheffield and has published widely on biotic interactions, biodiversity, and soil biology.

Reviews

"Highly recommended for all ecologists."--Choice "I suspect that this book, if for nothing else than for the sheer weight of its intellectual synthesis, will be among [the] classics for many years to come."--Patrick Bohlen, Ecology

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