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CompTIA Network+ N10-006 Cert Guide, Deluxe Edition
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Table of Contents

&> Introduction xxv Chapter 1 Computer Network Fundamentals 2 Foundation Topics 4 Defining a Network 4 The Purpose of Networks 4 Overview of Network Components 5 Networks Defined by Geography 7 LAN 7 WAN 8 Other Categories of Networks 8 CAN 8 MAN 8 PAN 9 Networks Defined by Topology 9 Physical Versus Logical Topology 9 Bus Topology 11 Ring Topology 13 Star Topology 14 Hub-and-Spoke Topology 15 Full-Mesh Topology 17 Partial-Mesh Topology 18 Networks Defined by Resource Location 19 Client/Server Networks 19 Peer-to-Peer Networks 21 Real-World Case Study 22 Summary 23 Exam Preparation Tasks 23 Review Questions 25 Chapter 2 The OSI Reference Model 28 Foundation Topics 30 The Purpose of Reference Models 30 The OSI Model 31 Layer 1: The Physical Layer 33 Layer 2: The Data Link Layer 37 Media Access Control 37 Logical Link Control 38 Layer 3: The Network Layer 40 Layer 4: The Transport Layer 42 Layer 5: The Session Layer 44 Layer 6: The Presentation Layer 46 Layer 7: The Application Layer 47 The TCP/IP Stack 48 Layers of the TCP/IP Stack 48 Common Application Protocols in the TCP/IP Stack 51 Real-World Case Study 55 Summary 56 Exam Preparation Tasks 56 Review Questions 58 Chapter 3 Network Components 60 Foundation Topics 62 Media 62 Coaxial Cable 62 Twisted-Pair Cable 64 Shielded Twisted Pair 64 Unshielded Twisted Pair 65 Plenum Versus Nonplenum Cable 68 Fiber-Optic Cable 69 Multimode Fiber 69 Single-Mode Fiber 71 Fiber Connector Polishing Styles 73 Media Converters 74 Cable Distribution 74 Wireless Technologies 76 Network Infrastructure Devices 77 Hubs 77 Bridges 79 Switches 80 Multilayer Switches 87 Routers 88 Infrastructure Device Summary 89 Specialized Network Devices 90 VPN Concentrators 90 Firewalls 91 DNS Servers 92 DHCP Servers 94 Proxy Servers 96 Content Engines 97 Content Switches 98 Virtual Network Devices 99 Virtual Servers 99 Virtual Routers and Firewalls 100 Virtual Switches 101 Virtual Desktops 102 Other Virtualization Solutions 102 Cloud Computing 103 Software-Defined Networking 104 Voice over IP Protocols and Components 104 Real-World Case Study 105 Summary 106 Exam Preparation Tasks 107 Review Questions 109 Chapter 4 Ethernet Technology 112 Foundation Topics 114 Principles of Ethernet 114 Ethernet Origins 114 Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Detect 116 Distance and Speed Limitations 120 Ethernet Switch Features 122 Virtual LANs 122 Switch Configuration for an Access Port 124 Trunks 125 Switch Configuration for a Trunk Port 127 Spanning Tree Protocol 127 Corruption of a Switch's MAC Address Table 128 Broadcast Storms 129 STP Operation 130 Link Aggregation 133 LACP Configuration 134 Power over Ethernet 135 Port Monitoring 136 Port Mirroring Configuration 138 User Authentication 138 Management Access and Authentication 140 First-Hop Redundancy 141 Other Switch Features 142 Real-World Case Study 143 Summary 144 Exam Preparation Tasks 144 Review Questions 146 Chapter 5 IPv4 and IPv6 Addresses 148 Foundation Topics 150 Binary Numbering 150 Principles of Binary Numbering 150 Converting a Binary Number to a Decimal Number 151 Converting a Decimal Number to a Binary Number 151 Binary Numbering Practice 153 Binary Conversion Exercise 1 153 Binary Conversion Exercise 1: Solution 154 Binary Conversion Exercise 2 154 Binary Conversion Exercise 2: Solution 154 Binary Conversion Exercise 3 154 Binary Conversion Exercise 3: Solution 155 Binary Conversion Exercise 4 155 Binary Conversion Exercise 4: Solution 156 IPv4 Addressing 157 IPv4 Address Structure 157 Classes of Addresses 159 Types of Addresses 161 Unicast 161 Broadcast 161 Multicast 162 Assigning IPv4 Addresses 163 IP Addressing Components 163 Static Configuration 164 Dynamic Configuration 169 BOOTP 169 DHCP 169 Automatic Private IP Addressing 171 Subnetting 172 Purpose of Subnetting 172 Subnet Mask Notation 173 Subnet Notation: Practice Exercise 1 174 Subnet Notation: Practice Exercise 1 Solution 174 Subnet Notation: Practice Exercise 2 175 Subnet Notation: Practice Exercise 2 Solution 175 Extending a Classful Mask 175 Borrowed Bits 175 Calculating the Number of Created Subnets 176 Calculating the Number of Available Hosts 176 Basic Subnetting Practice: Exercise 1 177 Basic Subnetting Practice: Exercise 1 Solution 177 Basic Subnetting Practice: Exercise 2 178 Basic Subnetting Practice: Exercise 2 Solution 178 Calculating New IP Address Ranges 179 Advanced Subnetting Practice: Exercise 1 182 Advanced Subnetting Practice: Exercise 1 Solution 182 Advanced Subnetting Practice: Exercise 2 183 Advanced Subnetting Practice: Exercise 2 Solution 184 Additional Practice 185 Classless Interdomain Routing 186 IP Version 6 187 Need for IPv6 187 IPv6 Address Structure 188 IPv6 Address Types 189 IPv6 Data Flows 189 Unicast 189 Multicast 190 Anycast 191 Real-World Case Study 192 Summary 192 Exam Preparation Tasks 193 Review Questions 194 Chapter 6 Routing IP Packets 198 Foundation Topics 200 Basic Routing Processes 200 Sources of Routing Information 203 Directly Connected Routes 203 Static Routes 204 Dynamic Routing Protocols 205 Routing Protocol Characteristics 207 Believability of a Route 208 Metrics 208 Interior Versus Exterior Gateway Protocols 209 Route Advertisement Method 210 Distance Vector 210 Link State 212 Routing Protocol Examples 212 Address Translation 214 NAT 214 PAT 217 Multicast Routing 218 IGMP 218 PIM 220 PIM-DM 221 PIM-SM 223 Real-World Case Study 224 Summary 225 Exam Preparation Tasks 226 Review Questions 227 Chapter 7 Wide-Area Networks 230 Foundation Topics 232 WAN Properties 232 WAN Connection Types 232 WAN Data Rates 234 WAN Media Types 235 Physical Media 235 Wireless Media 236 WAN Technologies 237 Dedicated Leased Line 237 T1 238 E1 239 T3 239 E3 239 CSU/DSU 239 Metro Ethernet 240 Point-to-Point Protocol 241 Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet 242 Microsoft RRAS 243 Digital Subscriber Line 244 Cable Modem 246 Synchronous Optical Network 247 Satellite 249 Plain Old Telephone Service 251 Integrated Services Digital Network 253 Frame Relay 255 Asynchronous Transfer Mode 256 Multiprotocol Label Switching 259 Overlay Networks 260 Real-World Case Study 261 Summary 261 Exam Preparation Tasks 262 Review Questions 263 Chapter 8 Wireless LANs 266 Foundation Topics 268 Introducing Wireless LANs 268 WLAN Concepts and Components 268 Wireless Routers 268 Wireless Access Point 269 Antennas 270 Frequencies and Channels 273 CSMA/CA 275 Transmission Methods 276 WLAN Standards 277 802.11a 277 802.11b 277 802.11g 277 802.11n 277 802.11ac 278 802.11x Standard Summary 278 Deploying Wireless LANs 279 Types of WLANs 279 IBSS 279 BSS 280 ESS 280 Mesh Topology 281 Sources of Interference 281 Wireless AP Placement 283 Securing Wireless LANs 284 Security Issues 284 Approaches to WLAN Security 286 Security Standards 288 WEP 288 WPA 289 WPA2 289 Additional Wireless Options 290 Real-World Case Study 290 Summary 291 Exam Preparation Tasks 291 Review Questions 293 Chapter 9 Network Optimization 296 Foundation Topics 298 High Availability 298 High-Availability Measurement 298 Fault-Tolerant Network Design 298 Hardware Redundancy 300 Layer 3 Redundancy 300 Design Considerations for High-Availability Networks 301 High-Availability Best Practices 302 Content Caching 302 Load Balancing 303 QoS Technologies 304 Introduction to QoS 304 QoS Configuration Steps 305 QoS Components 306 QoS Mechanisms 307 Classification 308 Marking 308 Congestion Management 309 Congestion Avoidance 309 Policing and Shaping 310 Link Efficiency 312 Case Study: SOHO Network Design 313 Case Study Scenario 313 Suggested Solution 315 IP Addressing 315 Layer 1 Media 317 Layer 2 Devices 317 Layer 3 Devices 318 Wireless Design 318 Environmental Factors 319 Cost Savings Versus Performance 320 Topology 320 Real-World Case Study 320 Summary 321 Exam Preparation Tasks 322 Review Questions 323 Chapter 10 Command-Line Tools 326 Foundation Topics 328 Windows Commands 328 arp 328 ipconfig 330 nbtstat 333 netstat 336 nslookup 338 ping 340 ping with IPv6 342 route 342 tracert 346 tracert with IPv6 347 PathPing 348 UNIX Commands 348 arp 349 dig and nslookup 352 host 353 ifconfig 353 traceroute 354 traceroute for IPv6 355 netstat 355 ping 357 Real-World Case Study 359 Summary 360 Exam Preparation Tasks 360 Review Questions 362 Chapter 11 Network Management 366 Foundation Topics 368 Maintenance Tools 368 Bit-Error Rate Tester 368 Butt Set 369 Cable Certifier 369 Cable Tester 370 Connectivity Software 370 Crimper 370 Electrostatic Discharge Wrist Strap 371 Environmental Monitor 372 Loopback Plug 373 Multimeter 373 Protocol Analyzer 374 WiFi Analyzer 375 Looking-Glass Sites 375 Speed Test Sites 376 Punch-Down Tool 376 Throughput Tester 376 Time Domain Reflectometer/Optical Time Domain Reflectometer 377 Toner Probe 378 Configuration Management 378 Monitoring Resources and Reports 381 SNMP 381 Syslog 385 Logs 387 Application Logs 388 Security Logs 388 System Logs 389 Real-World Case Study 389 Summary 390 Exam Preparation Tasks 391 Review Questions 392 Chapter 12 Network Security 396 Foundation Topics 398 Security Fundamentals 398 Network Security Goals 398 Confidentiality 398 Symmetric Encryption 399 Asymmetric Encryption 400 Integrity 402 Availability 403 Categories of Network Attacks 403 Confidentiality Attacks 403 Integrity Attacks 407 Availability Attacks 409 Denial of Service 410 Distributed Denial of Service 410 TCP SYN Flood 410 Buffer Overflow 411 ICMP Attacks 411 Electrical Disturbances 412 Attacks on a System's Physical Environment 413 Physical Controls 414 Defending Against Attacks 414 User Training 414 Patching 415 Security Policies 416 Governing Policy 417 Technical Policies 418 End-User Policies 418 More Detailed Documents 418 Incident Response 419 Vulnerability Scanners 420 Nessus 420 Nmap 421 Honey Pots and Honey Nets 422 Access Control Lists 423 Remote-Access Security 424 Firewalls 426 Firewall Types 426 Firewall Inspection Types 427 Packet-Filtering Firewall 427 Stateful Firewall 428 Firewall Zones 429 Unified Threat Management Firewalls 430 Virtual Private Networks 431 Overview of IPsec with IKEv1 433 IKE Modes and Phases 433 Authentication Header and Encapsulating Security Payload 435 The Five Steps in Setting Up and Tearing Down an IPsec Site-to-Site VPN Using IKEv1 437 Other VPN Technologies 438 Intrusion Detection and Prevention 439 IDS Versus IPS 439 IDS and IPS Device Categories 440 Detection Methods 440 Signature-Based Detection 440 Policy-Based Detection 441 Anomaly-Based Detection 441 Deploying Network-Based and Host-Based Solutions 442 Real-World Case Study 443 Summary 444 Exam Preparation Tasks 445 Review Questions 447 Chapter 13 Network Troubleshooting 450 Foundation Topics 452 Troubleshooting Basics 452 Troubleshooting Fundamentals 452 Structured Troubleshooting Methodology 454 Physical Layer Troubleshooting 457 Physical Layer Troubleshooting: Scenario 458 Physical Layer Troubleshooting: Solution 459 Data Link Layer Troubleshooting 460 Data Link Layer Troubleshooting: Scenario 461 Data Link Layer Troubleshooting: Solution 461 Network Layer Troubleshooting 462 Layer 3 Data Structures 462 Common Layer 3 Troubleshooting Issues 464 Network Layer Troubleshooting: Scenario 465 Network Layer Troubleshooting: Solution 466 Wireless Troubleshooting 467 Wireless Network Troubleshooting: Scenario 469 Wireless Network Troubleshooting: Solution 469 Specialized Networks 470 Real-World Case Study 470 Summary 471 Exam Preparation Tasks 472 Review Questions 473 Chapter 14 Final Preparation 476 Tools for Final Preparation 477 Pearson Cert Practice Test Engine and Questions on the DVD 477 Install the Software from the DVD 478 Activate and Download the Practice Exam 479 Activating Other Exams 480 Premium Edition 480 Video Training on DVD 480 Memory Tables 481 Simulations and Performance-Based Exercises 481 End-of-Chapter Review Tools 481 Suggested Plan for Final Review and Study 481 Strategies for Taking the Exam 483 Summary 484 APPENDIX A Answers to Review Questions 486 APPENDIX B Network+ N10-006 Exam Updates 490 APPENDIX C Exam Essentials 494 Glossary 506 Index 533 ON THE DVD: APPENDIX D Memory Tables APPENDIX E Memory Table Answer Key APPENDIX F Study Planner

About the Author

Keith Barker, CCIE No. 6783, has been working in the information technology (IT) industry since 1985. He currently enjoys creating effective and entertaining video training for CBT Nuggets. He has certified with VMware, Cisco, Juniper, HP, Check Point, Palo Alto, (ISC)2, and many others. Keith loves to teach. You can follow Keith online through the following: Twitter: @KeithBarkerCCIE Facebook: Keith Barker Networking YouTube: http://youtube.com/Keith6783 Web page: http://cbtnuggets.com Kevin Wallace, CCIE No. 7945 (R/S and Collaboration), is a Certified Cisco Systems Instructor (CCSI No. 20061) with multiple Cisco professional and associate level certifications in the R/S, Collaboration, Security, Design, and Data Center tracks. With networking experience dating back to 1989, Kevin has been a network design specialist for the Walt Disney World Resort, an instructor of Cisco courses for Skillsoft, and a network manager for Eastern Kentucky University. Currently, Kevin owns and operates Kevin Wallace Training, LLC, where he primarily produces video courses and writes books for Cisco Press/Pearson IT Certification (http://kwtrain.com/books). Kevin holds a bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering from the University of Kentucky, and he lives in central Kentucky with his wife (Vivian) and two daughters (Stacie and Sabrina). Kevin can be followed on these social media platforms: Blog: http://kwtrain.com Twitter: http://twitter.com/kwallaceccie Facebook: http://facebook.com/kwallaceccie YouTube: http://youtube.com/kwallaceccie LinkedIn: http://linkedin.com/in/kwallaceccie Google+: http://google.com/+KevinWallace About the Network+ Hands-On Lab Simulator Author: Network+ certified since 2003, Michael Taylor currently serves as computer sciences department head for a career college in the eastern United States, where he has taught for more than 10 years. In his role as a technical instructor, he won the Instructor of the Year award from his superiors and Instructor of the Quarter award from his students numerous times. In addition to a bachelor degree in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Mr. Taylor holds a master's degree in industrial technology with a concentration in computer network management from East Carolina University.

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