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CompTIA Security+ SY0-301 Authorized Cert Guide [With DVD]


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Table of Contents

Introduction xxvChapter 1 Introduction to Security 3Foundation Topics 4Security 101 4 The CIA of Computer Security 4 The Basics of Information Security 6Think Like a Hacker 9Exam Preparation Tasks 11Review Key Topics 11Define Key Terms 11Answer Review Questions 11Answers and Explanations 13Chapter 2 Computer Systems Security 17Foundation Topics 18Computer Systems Security Threats 18 Malicious Software 18 Viruses 18 Worms 19 Trojan Horses 20 Spyware 21 Rootkits 21 Spam 21 Summary of Malware Threats 22 Ways to Deliver Malicious Software 23 Via Software, Messaging, and Media 23 Active Interception 23 Privilege Escalation 24 Backdoors 24 Logic Bombs 24 Botnets and Zombies 25 Preventing and Troubleshooting Malware 26 Preventing and Troubleshooting Viruses 26 Preventing and Troubleshooting Worms and Trojans 30 Preventing and Troubleshooting Spyware 30 Preventing and Troubleshooting Rootkits 32 Preventing and Troubleshooting Spam 33 You Can't Save Every Computer from Malware! 35 Summary of Malware Prevention Techniques 35Implementing Security Applications 36 Personal Software Firewalls 36 Host-Based Intrusion Detection Systems 38 Pop-Up Blockers 40 Data Loss Prevention Systems 42Securing Computer Hardware and Peripherals 42 Securing the BIOS 43 Securing Storage Devices 44 Removable Storage 44 Network Attached Storage 45 Whole Disk Encryption 45 Hardware Security Modules 47 Securing Cell Phones and Smartphones 47Exam Preparation Tasks 49Review Key Topics 49Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 49Define Key Terms 50Hands-On Labs 50 Equipment Needed 50 Lab 2-1: Using Free Malware Scanning Programs 50 Lab 2-2: How to Secure the BIOS 51View Recommended Resources 53Answer Review Questions 54Answers and Explanations 60Chapter 3 OS Hardening and Virtualization 67Foundation Topics 68Hardening Operating Systems 68 Removing Unnecessary Applications and Services 68 Service Packs 72 Windows Update, Patches, and Hotfixes 75 Patches and Hotfixes 77 Patch Management 79 Group Policies, Security Templates, and Configuration Baselines 80 Hardening File Systems and Hard Drives 82Virtualization Technology 86 Types of Virtualization and Their Purposes 86 Working with Virtual Machines 88 Microsoft Virtual PC 88 Microsoft Windows XP Mode 90 Microsoft Virtual Server 90 VMware 91 Hypervisor 92 Securing Virtual Machines 92Exam Preparation Tasks 94Review Key Topics 94Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 95Define Key Terms 95Hands-On Labs 95 Equipment Needed 95 Lab 3-1: Discerning and Updating the Service Pack Level 96 Lab 3-2: Creating a Virtual Machine in Virtual PC 2007 96 Lab 3-3: Securing a Virtual Machine 98View Recommended Resources 101Answer Review Questions 102Answers and Explanations 105Chapter 4 Application Security 109Foundation Topics 110Securing the Browser 110 General Browser Security Procedures 111 Implement Policies 111 Train Your Users 114 Use a Proxy and Content Filter 114 Secure Against Malicious Code 116 Securing Internet Explorer 116 Securing Firefox 121Securing Other Applications 124Secure Programming 127 Systems Development Life Cycle 128 Programming Testing Methods 130 Programming Vulnerabilities and Attacks 132 Backdoors 132 Buffer Overflows 132 XSS and XSRF 133 More Code Injection Examples 133 Directory Traversal 134 Zero Day Attack 135Exam Preparation Tasks 136Review Key Topics 136Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 136Define Key Terms 137Hands-On Labs 137 Equipment Needed 137 Lab 4-1: Securing the Browser 137 Lab 4-2: Disabling Applications with a Windows Server 2008 Policy 138View Recommended Resources 141Answer Review Questions 141Answers and Explanations 145Chapter 5 Network Design Elements and Network Threats 149Foundation Topics 150Network Design 150 Network Devices 150 Hub 150 Switch 151 Router 152 Network Address Translation, and Private Versus Public IP 154 Network Zones and Interconnections 156 LAN Versus WAN 157 Internet 157 Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) 157 Intranets and Extranets 159 Cloud Computing 159 Network Access Control (NAC) 162 Subnetting 162 Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) 164 Telephony Devices 165 Modems 166 PBX Equipment 166 VoIP 167Ports and Protocols 167 Ports Ranges, Inbound Versus Outbound, and Common Ports 167 Protocols That Can Cause Anxiety on the Exam 174Malicious Network Attacks 175 DoS 175 DDoS 178 Spoofing 178 Session Hijacking 179 Replay 181 Null Sessions 181 Transitive Access and Client-Side Attacks 182 DNS Poisoning and Other DNS Attacks 183 ARP Poisoning 184 Summary of Network Attacks 185Exam Preparation Tasks 188Review Key Topics 188Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 189Define Key Terms 189Hands-On Labs 189 Equipment Needed 190 Lab 5-1: Port Scanning Basics 190View Recommended Resources 191Answer Review Questions 192Answers and Explanations 199Chapter 6 Network Perimeter Security 205Foundation Topics 206Firewalls and Network Security 206 Firewalls 207 Proxy Servers 212 Honeypots and Honeynets 215 Data Loss Prevention (DLP) 216NIDS Versus NIPS 217 NIDS 217 NIPS 218 Summary of NIDS Versus NIPS 219 The Protocol Analyzer's Role in NIDS and NIPS 220Exam Preparation Tasks 220Review Key Topics 220Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 221Define Key Terms 221Hands-On Labs 221 Equipment Needed 222 Lab 6-1: Packet Filtering and NAT Firewalls 222 Lab 6-2: Configuring an Inbound Filter on a SOHO Router/Firewall 223 Lab 6-3: Enabling MAC Filtering 224View Recommended Resources 225Answer Review Questions 225Answers and Explanations 229Chapter 7 Securing Network Media and Devices 233Foundation Topics 234Securing Wired Networks and Devices 234 Network Device Vulnerabilities 234 Default Accounts 234 Weak Passwords 235 Privilege Escalation 236 Back Doors 237 Network Attacks 237 Other Network Device Considerations 238 Cable Media Vulnerabilities 238 Interference 239 Crosstalk 240 Data Emanation 241 Tapping into Data and Conversations 241Securing Wireless Networks 244 Wireless Access Point Vulnerabilities 244 Secure the Administration Interface 244 SSID Broadcast 245 Rogue Access Points 245 Evil Twin 246 Weak Encryption 246 Other Wireless Access Point Security Strategies 248 Wireless Transmission Vulnerabilities 250 Bluetooth Vulnerabilities 250 Bluejacking 251 Bluesnarfing 251Exam Preparation Tasks 252Review Key Topics 252Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 253Define Key Terms 253Hands-On Labs 253 Equipment Needed 254 Lab 7-1: Securing a Wireless Device: 8 Steps to a Secure Network 254 Lab 7-2: Wardriving...and The Cure 256View Recommended Resources 257Answer Review Questions 257Answers and Explanations 261Chapter 8 Physical Security and Authentication Models 265Foundation Topics 267Physical Security 267 General Building and Server Room Security 267 Door Access 268 Biometric Readers 270Authentication Models and Components 271 Authentication Models 271 Localized Authentication Technologies 273 802.1X and EAP 273 LDAP 276 Kerberos and Mutual Authentication 277 Terminal Services 279 Remote Authentication Technologies 279 Remote Access Service 280 Virtual Private Networks 281 RADIUS Versus TACACS 284Exam Preparation Tasks 286Review Key Topics 286Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 287Define Key Terms 287Hands-On Labs 287 Equipment Needed 288 Lab 8-1: Enabling 802.1X on a Network Adapter 288 Lab 8-2: Setting Up a VPN 289View Recommended Resources 291Answer Review Questions 292Answers and Explanations 299Chapter 9 Access Control Methods and Models 305Foundation Topics 306Access Control Models Defined 306 Discretionary Access Control 306 Mandatory Access Control 308 Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) 309 Access Control Wise Practices 310Rights, Permissions, and Policies 313 Users, Groups, and Permissions 313 Permission Inheritance and Propagation 317 Moving and Copying Folders and Files 318 Usernames and Passwords 318 Policies 322 User Account Control (UAC) 325Exam Preparation Tasks 326Review Key Topics 326Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 327Define Key Terms 327Hands-On Labs 327 Equipment Needed 327 Lab 9-1: Configuring Password Policies and User Account Restrictions 328 Lab 9-2: Configuring User and Group Permissions 330View Recommended Resources 331Answer Review Questions 332Answers and Explanations 337Chapter 10 Vulnerability and Risk Assessment 341Foundation Topics 342Conducting Risk Assessments 342 Qualitative Risk Assessment 344 Quantitative Risk Assessment 344 Security Analysis Methodologies 346 Security Controls 347 Vulnerability Management 349 Penetration Testing 350 OVAL 351Assessing Vulnerability with Security Tools 352 Network Mapping 352 Vulnerability Scanning 355 Network Sniffing 358 Password Analysis 359Exam Preparation Tasks 363Review Key Topics 363Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 363Define Key Terms 364Hands-On Labs 364 Equipment Needed 364 Lab 10-1: Mapping and Scanning the Network 365 Lab 10-2: Password Cracking and Defense 366View Recommended Resources 367Answer Review Questions 368Answers and Explanations 374Chapter 11 Monitoring and Auditing 379Foundation Topics 380Monitoring Methodologies 380 Signature-Based Monitoring 380 Anomaly-Based Monitoring 381 Behavior-Based Monitoring 381Using Tools to Monitor Systems and Networks 382 Performance Baselining 382 Protocol Analyzers 384 Wireshark 385 Network Monitor 386 SNMP 388Conducting Audits 389 Auditing Files 389 Logging 392 Log File Maintenance and Security 394 Auditing System Security Settings 396Exam Preparation Tasks 399Review Key Topics 399Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 400Define Key Terms 400Hands-On Labs 400 Equipment Needed 400 Lab 11-1: Using Protocol Analyzers 401View Recommended Resources 403Answer Review Questions 404Answers and Explanations 409Chapter 12 Encryption and Hashing Concepts 415Foundation Topics 416Cryptography Concepts 416 Symmetric Versus Asymmetric Key Algorithms 419 Symmetric Key Algorithms 420 Asymmetric Key Algorithms 421 Public Key Cryptography 421 Key Management 422 Steganography 423Encryption Algorithms 423 DES and 3DES 424 AES 424 RC 425 Summary of Symmetric Algorithms 426 RSA 426 Diffie-Hellman 427 Elliptic Curve 428 More Encryption Types 428 One-Time Pad 428 PGP 429Hashing Basics 430 Cryptographic Hash Functions 431 MD5 432 SHA 432 Happy Birthday! 432 LANMAN, NTLM, and NTLM2 433 LANMAN 433 NTLM and NTLM2 435Exam Preparation Tasks 436Review Key Topics 436Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 436Define Key Terms 436Hands-On Lab 437 Equipment Needed 437 Lab 12-1: Disabling the LM Hash in Windows Server 2003 437View Recommended Resources 438Answer Review Questions 439Answers and Explanations 445Chapter 13 PKI and Encryption Protocols 451Foundation Topics 452Public Key Infrastructure 452 Certificates 452 Certificate Authorities 453 Single-Sided and Dual-Sided Certificates 456 Web of Trust 456Security Protocols 457 S/MIME 457 SSL/TLS 458 SSH 459 PPTP, L2TP, and IPsec 459 PPTP 460 L2TP 460 IPsec 460Exam Preparation Tasks 461Review Key Topics 461Define Key Terms 462Hands-On Labs 462 Equipment Needed 462 Lab 13-1: A Basic Example of PKI 462 Lab 13-2: Making an SSH Connection 463View Recommended Resources 465Answer Review Questions 465Answers and Explanations 470Chapter 14 R edundancy and Disaster Recovery 475Foundation Topics 476Redundancy Planning 476 Redundant Power 478 Redundant Power Supplies 479 Uninterruptible Power Supplies 480 Backup Generators 481 Redundant Data 483 Redundant Networking 486 Redundant Servers 488 Redundant Sites 489Disaster Recovery Planning and Procedures 490 Data Backup 490 DR Planning 494Exam Preparation Tasks 497Review Key Topics 497Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 497Define Key Terms 498Hands-On Labs 498 Equipment Needed 498 Lab 14-1: Configuring RAID 1 and 5 498View Recommended Resources 500Answer Review Questions 500Answers and Explanations 504Chapter 15 Policies, Procedures, and People 509Foundation Topics 510Environmental Controls 510 Fire Suppression 510 Fire Extinguishers 510 Sprinkler Systems 512 Special Hazard Protection Systems 512 HVAC 513 Shielding 514Social Engineering 515 Pretexting 516 Diversion Theft 516 Phishing 516 Hoaxes 518 Shoulder Surfing 518 Eavesdropping 518 Dumpster Diving 519 Baiting 519 Piggybacking/Tailgating 519 Summary of Social Engineering Types 519 User Education and Awareness 520Legislative and Organizational Policies 521 Data Sensitivity and Classification of Information 522 Personnel Security Policies 524 Privacy Policies 525 Acceptable Use 525 Change Management 525 Separation of Duties/Job Rotation 526 Mandatory Vacations 526 Due Diligence 527 Due Care 527 Due Process 527 User Education and Awareness Training 527 Summary of Personnel Security Policies 528 How to Deal with Vendors 529 How to Dispose of Computers and Other IT Equipment Securely 529 Incident Response Procedures 531Exam Preparation Tasks 534Review Key Topics 534Complete Tables and Lists from Memory 535Define Key Terms 535View Recommended Resources 535Answer Review Questions 536Answers and Explanations 543Chapter 16 Taking the Real Exam 551Foundation Topics 552Getting Ready and the Exam Preparation Checklist 552Tips for Taking the Real Exam 555Beyond the CompTIA Security+ Certification 558Hands-On Lab 559Practice Exam 1 561Practice Exam 2 611Glossary 663Master List of Key Topics 685 On the DVD:Appendix A: Memory TablesAppendix B: Memory Tables Answer Key 9780789748270 TOC 11/29/2011

About the Author

David L. Prowse is an author, a computer network specialist, and a technical trainer. Over the past several years he has authored several titles for Pearson Education, including the well-received CompTIA A+ Exam Cram. As a consultant, he installs and secures the latest in computer and networking technology. Over the past decade he has also taught CompTIA A+, Network+, and Security+ certification courses, both in the classroom and via the Internet. He runs the website, where he gladly answers questions from students and readers.

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