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Compilers: Principles, Techniques, and Tools


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Table of Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Language Processors

1.2 The Structure of a Compiler

1.3 The Evolution of Programming Languages

1.4 The Science of Building a Compiler

1.5 Applications of Compiler Technology

1.6 Programming Language Basics

1.7 Summary of Chapter 1

1.8 References for Chapter 1

2 A Simple Syntax-Directed Translator

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Syntax Definition

2.3 Syntax-Directed Translation

2.4 Parsing

2.5 A Translator for Simple Expressions

2.6 Lexical Analysis

2.7 Symbol Tables

2.8 Intermediate Code Generation

2.9 Summary of Chapter 2

3 Lexical Analysis

3.1 The Role of the Lexical Analyzer

3.2 Input Buffering

3.3 Specification of Tokens

3.4 Recognition of Tokens

3.5 The Lexical-Analyzer Generator Lex

3.6 Finite Automata

3.7 From Regular Expressions to Automata

3.8 Design of a Lexical-Analyzer Generator

3.9 Optimization of DFA-Based Pattern Matchers

3.10 Summary of Chapter 3

3.11 References for Chapter 3

4 Syntax Analysis

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Context-Free Grammars

4.3 Writing a Grammar

4.4 Top-Down Parsing

4.5 Bottom-Up Parsing

4.6 Introduction to LR Parsing: Simple LR

4.7 More Powerful LR Parsers

4.8 Using Ambiguous Grammars

4.9 Parser Generators

4.10 Summary of Chapter 4

4.11 References for Chapter 4

5 Syntax-Directed Translation

5.1 Syntax-Directed Definitions

5.2 Evaluation Orders for SDD's

5.3 Applications of Syntax-Directed Translation

5.4 Syntax-Directed Translation Schemes

5.5 Implementing L-Attributed SDD's

5.6 Summary of Chapter 5

5.7 References for Chapter 5

6 Intermediate-Code Generation

6.1 Variants of Syntax Trees

6.2 Three-Address Code

6.3 Types and Declarations

6.4 Translation of Expressions

6.5 Type Checking

6.6 Control Flow

6.7 Backpatching

6.8 Switch-Statements

6.9 Intermediate Code for Procedures

6.10 Summary of Chapter 6

6.11 References for Chapter 6

7 Run-Time Environments

7.1 Storage Organization

7.2 Stack Allocation of Space

7.3 Access to Nonlocal Data on the Stack

7.4 Heap Management

7.5 Introduction to Garbage Collection

7.6 Introduction to Trace-Based Collection

7.7 Short-Pause Garbage Collection

7.8 Advanced Topics in Garbage Collection

7.9 Summary of Chapter 7

7.10 References for Chapter 7

8 Code Generation

8.1 Issues in the Design of a Code Generator

8.2 The Target Language

8.3 Addresses in the Target Code

8.4 Basic Blocks and Flow Graphs

8.5 Optimization of Basic Blocks

8.6 A Simple Code Generator

8.7 Peephole Optimization

8.8 Register Allocation and Assignment

8.9 Instruction Selection by Tree Rewriting

8.10 Optimal Code Generation for Expressions

8.11 Dynamic Programming Code-Generation

8.12 Summary of Chapter 8

8.13 References for Chapter 8

9 Machine-Independent Optimizations

9.1 The Principal Sources of Optimization

9.2 Introduction to Data-Flow Analysis

9.3 Foundations of Data-Flow Analysis

9.4 Constant Propagation

9.5 Partial-Redundancy Elimination

9.6 Loops in Flow Graphs

9.7 Region-Based Analysis

9.8 Symbolic Analysis

9.9 Summary of Chapter 9

9.10 References for Chapter 9

10 Instruction-Level Parallelism

10.1 Processor Architectures

10.2 Code-Scheduling Constraints

10.3 Basic-Block Scheduling

10.4 Global Code Scheduling

10.5 Software Pipelining

10.6 Summary of Chapter 10

10.7 References for Chapter 10

11 Optimizing for Parallelism and Locality

11.1 Basic Concepts

11.2 Matrix Multiply: An In-Depth Example

11.3 Iteration Spaces

11.4 Affine Array Indexes

11.5 Data Reuse

11.6 Array Data-Dependence Analysis

11.7 Finding Synchronization-Free Parallelism

11.8 Synchronization Between Parallel Loops

11.9 Pipelining

11.10 Locality Optimizations

11.11 Other Uses of Affine Transforms

11.12 Summary of Chapter 11

11.13 References for Chapter 11

12 Interprocedural Analysis

12.1 Basic Concepts

12.2 Why Interprocedural Analysis?

12.3 A Logical Representation of Data Flow

12.4 A Simple Pointer-Analysis Algorithm

12.5 Context-Insensitive Interprocedural Analysis

12.6 Context-Sensitive Pointer Analysis

12.7 Datalog Implementation by BDD's

12.8 Summary of Chapter 12

12.9 References for Chapter 12

A A Complete Front End

A.1 The Source Language

A.2 Main

A.3 Lexical Analyzer

A.4 Symbol Tables and Types

A.5 Intermediate Code for Expressions

A.6 Jumping Code for Boolean Expressions

A.7 Intermediate Code for Statements

A.8 Parser

A.9 Creating the Front End

B Finding Linearly Independent Solutions


About the Author

Alfred V. Aho is Lawrence Gussman Professor of Computer Science at Columbia University. Professor Aho has won several awards including the Great Teacher Award for 2003 from the Society of Columbia Graduates and the IEEE John von Neumann Medal. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the ACM and IEEE. Monica S. Lam is a Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University, was the Chief Scientist at Tensilica and the founding CEO of moka5. She led the SUIF project which produced one of the most popular research compilers, and pioneered numerous compiler techniques used in industry. Ravi Sethi launched the research organization in Avaya and is president of Avaya Labs. Previously, he was a senior vice president at Bell Labs in Murray Hill and chief technical officer for communications software at Lucent Technologies. He has held teaching positions at the Pennsylvania State University and the University of Arizona, and has taught at Princeton University and Rutgers. He is a fellow of the ACM. Jeffrey Ullman is CEO of Gradiance and a Stanford W. Ascherman Professor of Computer Science at Stanford University. His research interests include database theory, database integration, data mining, and education using the information infrastructure. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of the ACM, and winner of the Karlstrom Award and Knuth Prize.

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