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The Complete Musician


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PART 1: THE FOUNDATION OF TONAL MUSIC ; CHAPTER 1: MUSICAL SPACE AND TIME ; TONALITY IN CONTEXT: BACH'S VIOLIN PARTITA NO. 3, PRELUDE ; SPECIFICS OF THE PITCH REALM ; PITCHES AND PITCH CLASSES ; SCALES ; KEYS ; INTERVALS ; Enharmonic Intervals ; Consonant and Dissonant Intervals ; THE METRICAL REALM ; Meter Signature ; Asymmetrical Meters ; Clarifying Meter ; More Rhythmic Procedures ; Accent in Music ; " Temporal Accents ; " Nontemporal Accents ; Metrical Disturbance ; " Syncopation ; " Hemiola ; CHAPTER 2: HARNESSING SPACE AND TIME: INTRODUCTION TO MELODY AND TWO-VOICE COUNTERPOINT ; MELODY: CHARACTERISTICS AND WRITING ; CONTROLLING CONSONANCE AND DISSONANCE: INTRODUCTION TO TWO-VOICE COUNTERPOINT ; First-Species Counterpoint ; " Contrapuntal Motions ; " Beginning and Ending First-Species Counterpoint ; " Rules and Guidelines for First-Species (1:1) Counterpoint ; Second-Species Counterpoint ; " Weak-Beat Consonance ; " Weak-Beat Dissonance ; " More on Perfect Consonances ; " Beginning and Ending Second-Species Counterpoint ; " Rules and Guidelines for Second-Species Counterpoint ; CHAPTER 3: MUSICAL DENSITY: TRIADS, SEVENTH CHORDS, AND TEXTURE ; ADDING VOICES: TRIADS AND SEVENTH CHORDS ; Triads ; " Figured Bass ; " Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis ; " Harmony and the Keyboard ; Seventh Chords ; MUSICAL TEXTURE ; Analytical Method ; PART 2: MERGING MELODY AND HARMONY ; CHAPTER 4: WHEN HARMONY, MELODY, AND RHYTHM CONVERGE ; TONAL HIERARCHY IN MUSIC ; EMBELLISHING TONES ; THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT IN ANALYSIS ; ANALYTICAL INTERLUDE ; MELODIC FLUENCY ; MELODY AS HARMONY ; CHAPTER 5: TONIC AND DOMINANT AS TONAL PILLARS AND INTRODUCTION TO VOICE LEADING ; CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECT OF V AND I ; THE CADENCE ; INTRODUCTION TO VOICE LEADING ; Texture and Register ; Three Techniques to Create Voice Independence within a Four-Voice Texture ; " Technique 1: Smoothness ; " Technique 2: Registral Independence ; " Technique 3: Contrapuntal Independence ; Creating the Best Sound: Incomplete and Complete Chords, Doubling, and Spacing ; " Omitted Chord Tones ; " Doubled Chord Tones ; " Spacing and Voicing ; Summary of Voice-Leading Rules and Guidelines ; CHAPTER 6: THE IMPACT OF MELODY, RHYTHM, AND METER ON HARMONY; INTRODUCTION TO V7 ; THE INTERACTION OF HARMONY, MELODY, METER, AND RHYTHM: EMBELLISHMENT AND REDUCTION ; Embellishment ; Reduction ; THE DOMINANT SEVENTH AND CHORDAL DISSONANCE ; Derivation and New Melodic Possibilities ; Part Writing with the Dominant Seventh Chords ; An Analytical Interlude ; HARMONIZING FLORID MELODIES ; SUMMARY ; CHAPTER 7: CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS OF TONIC AND DOMINANT: SIX-THREE CHORDS ; CHORDAL LEAPS IN THE BASS: I6 AND V6 ; NEIGHBOR TONES IN THE BASS (V6) ; SECOND LEVEL ANALYSIS ; PASSING TONES IN THE BASS: VIIO6 ; TONIC EXPANSION WITH AN ARPEGGIATING BASS: IV6 ; DOMINANT EXPANSION WITH PASSING TONES: IV6 ; COMBINING FIRST-INVERSION CHORDS ; SUMMARY ; CHAPTER 8: MORE CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS: INVERSIONS OF V7, INTRODUCTION TO LEADING TONE SEVENTH CHORDS, AND REDUCTION AND ELABORATION ; V7 AND ITS INVERSIONS ; V6/5 ; V4/3 ; V4/2 ; Voice-Leading Inversions of V7 ; Combining Inversions of V7 ; COMPOSITIONAL IMPACT OF CONTRAPUNTAL CHORDS ; LEADING TONE SEVENTH CHORDS: VIIO7 AND VII7 ; Voice Leading for viio7 ; vii7 ; SUMMARY OF CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS ; Reduction and Elaboration: Compositional and Performance Implications ; " Reduction ; " Elaboration ; SUMMARY OF PART 2 ; PART 3: A NEW HARMONIC FUNCTION, THE PHRASE MODEL, AND ADDITIONAL MELODIC AND HARMONIC EMBELLISHMENTS ; CHAPTER 9: THE PRE-DOMINANT FUNCTION AND THE PHRASE MODEL ; THE PRE-DOMINANT FUNCTION ; The Subdominant (IV in Major, iv in Minor) ; The Supertonic (ii in Major, iio in Minor) ; Pre-Dominants and the Stepwise Ascending Bass ; Part Writing for Pre-Dominants ; Extending the Pre-Dominant ; INTRODUCTION TO THE PHRASE MODEL ; Analytical Interlude ; CHAPTER 10: ACCENTED AND CHROMATIC EMBELLISHING TONES ; THE ACCENTED PASSING TONE (APT) ; THE CHROMATIC PASSING TONE (CPT) ; THE ACCENTED NEIGHBOR TONE (AN) ; THE CHROMATIC NEIGHBOR TONE (CN) ; THE APPOGGIATURA (APP) ; THE SUSPENSION (S) ; Labeling Suspensions ; Writing Suspensions ; Additional Suspension Techniques ; THE ANTICIPATION (ANT) ; THE PEDAL (PED) ; SUMMARY OF THE MOST COMMON EMBELLISHING TONES ; CHAPTER 11: SIX-FOUR CHORDS, REVISITING THE SUBDOMINANT, AND SUMMARY OF CONTRAPUNTAL EXPANSIONS ; UNACCENTED SIX-FOUR CHORDS ; Pedal ; Passing ; Arpeggiating ; ACCENTED SIX-FOUR CHORDS ; Cadential ; " Additional Uses of Cadential Six-Four Chord ; -- As Part of Half Cadences and Authentic Cadences ; -- Preceding V7 ; -- Within a Phrase ; -- Evaded Cadences: Elision and Extension ; -- Triple Meter ; -- Writing Six-Four Chords ; Revisiting the Subdominant ; Summary of Harmonic Paradigms ; Harmonizing Florid Melodies ; CHAPTER 12: THE PRE-DOMINANT REFINES THE PHRASE MODEL ; NONDOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS: IV7 (IV6/5) AND II7 (II6/5) ; Analyzing Nondominant Seventh Chords ; Embedding the Phrase Model ; Contrapuntal Cadences ; Expanding the Pre-Dominant ; " Passing Chord between ii and ii6 (or between ii6 and ii) ; " Passing Chord between IV and IV6 (or between IV6 and IV) ; " Passing Chord Moving from IV6 (IV6/5) to ii6/5 ; " Restate Tonic Material Up a Step ; SUBPHRASES ; COMPOSITE PHRASES ; SUMMARY OF PART 3 ; PART 4: NEW CHORDS AND NEW FORMS ; CHAPTER 13: THE SUBMEDIANT: A NEW DIATONIC HARMONY, AND FURTHER EXTENSIONS OF THE PHRASE MODEL ; THE SUBMEDIANT ; The Submediant as Bridge in the Descending-Thirds Progression ; The Submediant in the Descending-Circle-of-Fifths Progressions ; The Submediant as Tonic Substitute in Ascending-Seconds Progressions ; Voice Leading for the Submediant ; " The Descending-Thirds Progression, I-vi-IV ; " The Descending-Fifths Progression, I-vi-ii (or I-vi-ii6) ; " The Ascending-Seconds Progression, V-vi ; CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS ; Tonic and Dominant Embellish the Submediant ; Apparent Submediants ; THE STEP DESCENT IN THE BASS ; CHAPTER 14: THE MEDIANT, THE BACK-RELATING DOMINANT, AND A SYNTHESIS OF DIATONIC HARMONIC RELATIONSHIPS ; THE MEDIANT (III IN MAJOR; III IN MINOR) ; The Mediant in Arpeggiations ; A Special Case: Preparing the III Chord in Minor ; Voice Leading for the Mediant ; MORE CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS: THE BACK-RELATING DOMINANT AND SYNTHESIS: ROOT MOTION PRINCIPLES ; The Back-Relating Dominant ; Synthesis: Root Motion Principles ; " Compositional Application ; CHAPTER 15: THE PERIOD ; ASPECTS OF MELODY AND HARMONY IN PERIODS ; REPRESENTING FORM: THE FORMAL DIAGRAM ; SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF PERIODS AND SOME ANALYTICAL GUIDELINES ; Summary for Analyzing Periods ; COMPOSING PERIODS ; CHAPTER 16: OTHER SMALL MUSICAL STRUCTURES: SENTENCES, DOUBLE PERIODS, AND MODIFIED PERIODS ; THE SENTENCE: AN ALTERNATIVE MUSICAL STRUCTURE ; THE DOUBLE PERIOD ; MODIFIED PERIODS ; Extensions ; Phrase Group ; Asymmetrical Periods ; CHAPTER 17: HARMONIC SEQUENCES ; COMPONENTS AND TYPES OF SEQUENCES ; The Descending-Second (D2) Sequence ; " The Descending-Second Sequence in Inversion ; The Descending-Third (D3) Sequence ; " The Descending-Third Sequence in Inversion ; The Ascending-Second (A2) Sequence ; Another Ascending-Second Sequence: A2 (-3/+4) ; Sequences with Diatonic Seventh Chords ; " Sequences with Inversions of Seventh Chords ; Writing Sequences ; SUMMARY OF DIATONIC SEQUENCES ; SUMMARY OF PART 4 ; PART 5: FUNCTIONAL CHROMATICISM ; CHAPTER 18: APPLIED CHORDS ; APPLIED DOMINANT CHORDS ; Applied Chords in Inversion ; Tonicized Half Cadences ; Recognizing Applied Chords ; Voice Leading for Applied Chords ; APPLIED LEADING-TONE CHORDS ; INCORPORATING APPLIED CHORDS WITHIN PHRASES ; An Example Composition ; SEQUENCES WITH APPLIED CHORDS ; The D2 (-5/+4) Sequence ; The D3 (-4/+2) Sequence ; The A2 (-3/+4) Applied-Chord Sequence ; Writing Applied-Chord Sequences ; SUMMARY OF DIATONIC AND APPLIED-CHORD SEQUENCES ; CHAPTER 19: TONICIZATION AND MODULATION ; EXTENDED TONICIZATION ; MODULATION ; Closely Related Keys ; Analyzing Modulations ; Writing Modulations ; Modulation in the Larger Context ; The Sequence as a Tool in Modulation ; CHAPTER 20: BINARY FORM AND VARIATIONS ; BINARY FORM ; Simple Sectional Binary ; Simple Continuous Binary ; Rounded Sectional Binary ; Rounded Continuous Binary ; Balanced Binary Form ; Summary of Binary Form Types ; VARIATION FORM ; Continuous Variations ; Sectional Variations ; SUMMARY OF PART 5 ; ANSWERS TO EXERCISE 20.1 ; PART 6: EXPRESSIVE CHROMATICISM ; CHAPTER 21: MODAL MIXTURE ; ALTERED PRE-DOMINANT HARMONIES: IIO AND IV ; Application: Musical Effects of Melodic Mixture ; ALTERED SUBMEDIANT HARMONY: BVI ; ALTERED TONIC HARMONY: I ; ALTERED MEDIANT HARMONY: BIII ; VOICE LEADING FOR MIXTURE HARMONIES ; CHROMATIC STEPWISE BASS DESCENTS ; PLAGAL MOTIONS ; MODAL MIXTURE, APPLIED CHORDS, AND OTHER CHROMATIC HARMONIES ; SUMMARY ; CHAPTER 22: EXPANSION OF MODAL MIXTURE HARMONIES: CHROMATIC MODULATION AND THE GERMAN LIED ; CHROMATIC PIVOT-CHORD MODULATIONS ; An Analytical Interlude: Schubert's Waltz in F major ; WRITING CHROMATIC MODULATIONS ; UNPREPARED AND COMMON-TONE MODULATIONS ; ANALYTICAL CHALLENGES ; MODAL MIXTURE AND THE GERMAN LIED ; An Analytical Interlude: Schumann's "Waldesgesprach" ; Analytical Payoff: The Dramatic Role of bVI ; CHAPTER 23: THE NEAPOLITAN CHORD (BII): CHARACTERISTICS, EFFECTS, AND BEHAVIOR ; WRITING THE NEAPOLITAN CHORD ; EXPANDING BII ; THE NEAPOLITAN IN SEQUENCES ; THE NEAPOLITAN AS A PIVOT CHORD ; CHAPTER 24: THE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORD: CHARACTERISTICS, DERIVATION, AND BEHAVIOR ; TYPES OF AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORDS ; WRITING AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORDS ; BVI AND THE GER6/5 CHORD ; AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORDS AS PART OF PD EXPANSIONS ; THE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORD AND MODULATION: REINFORCEMENT ; The Augmented Sixth Chord as Pivot in Modulation ; SUMMARY OF PART 6 ; PART 7: LARGE FORMS: TERNARY, RONDO, SONATA ; CHAPTER 25: TERNARY FORM ; CHARACTERISTICS ; TRANSITIONS AND RETRANSITIONS ; DA CAPO FORM: COMPOUND TERNARY FORM ; DA CAPO ARIA ; MINUET-TRIO FORM ; TERNARY FORM IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY ; CHAPTER 26: RONDO ; CONTEXT ; THE CLASSICAL RONDO ; Five-Part Rondo ; Coda, Transitions, and Retransitions ; Compound Rondo Form ; Seven-Part Rondo ; " Distinguishing Seven-Part Rondo Form from Ternary Form ; MISSING DOUBLE BARS AND REPEATS ; CHAPTER 27: SONATA FORM ; HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND TONAL BACKGROUND ; THE BINARY MODEL FOR SONATA FORM ; ANALYTICAL PRELUDE: BEETHOVEN, PIANO SONATA IN G MINOR, OP. 49, NO. 1 ; Transition ; Closing Section ; Development and Retransition ; Recapitulation and Coda ; ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ELEMENTS OF SONATA FORM ; Monothematic Sonata Form ; The Slow Introduction ; Harmonic Anomalies ; OTHER TONAL STRATEGIES ; Three-Key Exposition ; Extended Third-Related STAs ; SONATA RONDO ; ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS: SONATAS OF HAYDN AND MOZART ; Haydn: Piano Sonata no. 48 in C major, Hob. XVI.35, Allegro con brio ; " Exposition ; " Development ; " Recapitulation ; Mozart, Piano Sonata in Bb Major, K. 333, Allegro ; " Exposition ; " Development ; SUMMARY OF PART 7 ; PART 8: INTRODUCTION TO NINETEENTH-CENTURY HARMONY: THE SHIFT FROM ASYMMETRY TO SYMMETRY ; CHAPTER 28: NEW HARMONIC TENDENCIES ; TONAL AMBIGUITY: THE PLAGAL RELATION AND RECIPROCAL PROCESS ; TONAL AMBIGUITY: SEMITONAL VOICE LEADING ; Semitonal Voice Leading and Remote Keys ; Analytical Interlude ; THE DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORD AND ENHARMONIC MODULATION ; Analysis ; Analytical Interlude ; TONAL CLARITY POSTPONED: OFF-TONIC BEGINNING ; DOUBLE TONALITY ; CHAPTER 29: THE RISE OF SYMMETRICAL HARMONY IN TONAL MUSIC ; A PARADOX: "BALANCED" MUSIC BASED ON ASYMMETRY ; SYMMETRY AND TONAL AMBIGUITY ; THE AUGMENTED TRIAD ; ALTERED DOMINANT SEVENTH CHORDS ; THE COMMON-TONE DIMINISHED SEVENTH CHORD ; COMMON-TONE AUGMENTED SIXTH CHORDS ; ANALYTICAL INTERLUDE ; CHAPTER 30: MELODIC AND HARMONIC SYMMETRY COMBINE: CHROMATIC SEQUENCES ; DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN DIATONIC AND CHROMATIC SEQUENCES ; CHROMATIC SEQUENCE TYPES ; The DM2 (-4/+3) Sequence ; The Chromatic Forms of the D2 (-5/+4) Sequence ; The Chromatic Forms of the A2 (-3/+4) Sequence ; OTHER CHROMATIC STEP-DESCENT BASSES ; Six-Three Chords ; Diminished Seventh Chords ; Augmented Sixth Chords ; WRITING CHROMATIC SEQUENCES ; CHROMATIC CONTRARY MOTION ; The Omnibus ; A FINAL EQUAL DIVISION OF THE OCTAVE ; CHAPTER 31: AT TONALITY'S EDGE ; SEQUENTIAL PROGRESSIONS ; NONSEQUENTIAL PROGRESSIONS AND EQUAL DIVISIONS OF THE OCTAVE ; THE INTERVALLIC CELL ; ANALYTICAL INTERLUDE: ; Chopin, Prelude, op. 28, no. 2 ; Wagner, Tristan und Isolde, "Prelude" ; Scriabin, Prelude, op. 39, no. 2 ; " Intervallic Properties of Key Sonorities ; " Compositional Processes: ; -- A Traditional View ; -- A Radical View ; SUMMARY OF PART 8 ; APPENDICES ; 1: FUNDAMENTALS ; A. THE PITCH REALM ; Charting Musical Sound: Staff and Clef ; Pitch and Pitch Class ; The Division of Musical Space: Intervals ; Accidentals ; Scales ; Enharmonicism ; Scale Degree Numbers and Names ; Specific Scale Types: Major and Minor ; Building Scales in the Major Mode ; Key Signatures and the Circle of Fifths ; Building Scales in the Minor Mode ; Key Signatures in Minor ; Relative Major and Minor Keys ; B. PULSE, RHYTHM, AND METER ; Rhythm and Durational Symbols ; Dots and Ties ; Meter ; " Beat Division and Simple and Compound Meters ; " The Meter Signature ; C. INTERVALS ; Naming Generic Intervals ; Melodic and Harmonic Intervals; Simple and Compound ; Tips for Identifying Generic Intervals ; Naming Specific Intervals ; Transforming Intervals: Augmented and Diminished Intervals ; Interval Inversion ; Generating All Intervals ; " Method 1 ; " Method 2 ; D. TRIADS, INVERSIONS, FIGURED BASS, AND HARMONIC ANALYSIS ; Triads ; " Voicing Triads: Spacing and Doubling ; " Triad Inversion ; " Figured Bass ; -- Analyzing and Composing Using Figured Bass ; -- Additional Figured Bass Conventions: Abbreviations and Chromaticism ; " Triads and the Scale: Harmonic Analysis ; " Roman Numerals ; " Introduction to Harmonic Analysis ; E. SEVENTH CHORDS AND HARMONIC ANALYSIS ; Definitions and Type ; Musical Characteristics of Seventh Chords ; Inverted Seventh Chords ; Analytical Tips ; Seventh Chords and Harmonic Analysis ; 2: INVERTIBLE COUNTERPOINT, COMPOUND MELODY, AND IMPLIED HARMONIES ; INVERTIBLE COUNTERPOINT ; Definitions and Effects ; Invertible Counterpoint below the Music's Surface ; HARMONIC IMPLICATIONS OF SINGLE MELODIC LINES: COMPOUND MELODY ; Definitions ; Implied Harmonies ; 3: THE MOTIVE ; INTRODUCTION ; MOTIVE TYPES ; MOTIVIC REPETITION ; Strict Repetition ; Modified Repetition ; Additional Pitch Transformations ; Rhythmic Transformations ; Developmental Repetitions ; INTER-SECTION AND INTERMOVEMENT MOTIVIC REPETITIONS ; SINGLE-INTERVAL MOTIVES ; HIDDEN MOTIVIC REPETITIONS ; Depth and Surface: Motivic Parallelism ; 4: ADDITIONAL HARMONIC SEQUENCE TOPICS ; COMPOUND MELODY AND IMPLIED SEVENTH CHORD SEQUENCES ; PARALLEL FIRST-INVERSION TRIADS ; SEQUENCES VERSUS SEQUENTIAL PROGRESSIONS ; COMPOSING SEQUENCES WITHIN THE PHRASE MODEL ; 5: ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ; 6: SELECTED ANSWERS TO TEXTBOOK EXERCISES ; INDEX OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS ; INDEX OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES AND EXERCISES

About the Author

Steven G. Laitz is Associate Professor of Music Theory at the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester. He is also an Affiliate Faculty Member in the Chamber Music Department at Eastman. Dr. Laitz is the current editor of the Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy.


"The Complete Musician offers a depth of theoretical training and analytical insight that its competitors do not. It has, by far, the best musical examples of any textbook available on the market today. The exercises, which incrementally progress from easier to harder, are highly original and just plain fun to do."--Reginald Bain, University of South Carolina

"The integration of composition, analysis, aural recognition, and performance is the best feature of The Complete Musician. It subtly reinforces the idea that a musician needs an understanding of each aspect of the musical universe in order to excel in any of its specialized areas. The Complete Musician trains music students to think like composers, which cannot help but make them better performers."--Ciro Scotto, University of South Florida
"The most comprehensive, musically intelligent, and easy-to-use music theory textbook on the market."--Stefan Eckert, University of Northern Colorado
"This title ranks among the very best of its kind. . . . If you want a thorough and approachable book that gets behind, or into the head (indeed, heart and soul) of composers whose music you've known; want to know how it works the way it does, and why; want to see the mechanics, an appreciation of which serves only to enhance your sense of admiration for their technique, then The Complete Musician can be recommended wholeheartedly."--Review from

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