Preface 1. Consumer Behavior Across Cultures Global Consumers in a Global Village? Globalization and Global Consumer Culture Converting and Diverging Consumer Behavior Post-Scarcity Societies and the Culture Paradigm Global Communities? New Media Universalism Sense of History Branding and Advertising: From Global to Multi-Local Consumer Behavior A Model of Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior Organization of the Book Conclusion Notes 2. Values and Culture Values Culture Defined Comparing Cultures National Cultures Dimensions of Culture Relationship of Man With Nature High-Context Communication Culture and Low-Context Communication Culture Dimensions of Time Hofstede: Five Dimensions of National Culture Schwartz: Seven Value Types or Motivational Domains Comparing Dimensional Models Application to Consumer Behavior Culture Relationships Conclusion Notes 3. Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior Convergence Theory Modernization Convergence: Macro and Micro Level Convergence/Divergence in Consumer Behavior National Wealth as an Explaining Variable Over Time, Culture Replaces Income as an Explanatory Variable With Increased Wealth, Cultural Values Become Manifest Other Measurement Variables Urbanization Population Density Education Age Distribution Household and Family Social Class Ethnicity Climate Consumer Behavior, National Wealth, and Culture Conclusion Notes 4. The Consumer: Attributes The Concept of Self Implications for Marketing, Branding, and Advertising Self-Enhancement and Self-Esteem Personality The Brand Personality Concept Personal Traits Brand Personality Traits Identity and Image Corporate Identity, Brand Identity, and Brand Image Attitude Attitude and Behavior Lifestyle Conclusion Notes 5. Social Processes Motivation, Needs, and Drives Culture-Related Consumer Needs and Motives Emotion Emotions in Advertising Group Processes Family and Relationships: Parents-Children Conformity Public and Private Space Reference Groups Opinion Leaders Conclusion Notes 6. Mental Processes Cognition and Cognitive Styles Learning and Memory Cognition and Affect Language Categorization Perception The Creative Process Attribution Locus of Control Information Processing Involvement Theory Decision Making Conclusion Notes 7. Culture, Communication, and Media Behavior Communication and Culture Communication Styles Mass Communication Styles Advertising Styles Web Communication Styles Media Behavior The Internet Responses to Marketing Communications Brand Communications Across Cultures The Future of Global Advertising Conclusion Notes 8. Consumer Behavior Domains Product Acquisition, Usage, and Ownership Food and Beverages Nondurable Household Products Personal Care and Cosmetics Clothing and Footwear Household Appliances Consumer Electronics and Personal Computers Telecommunications Luxury Articles Cars Leisure Finance Shopping and Buying Behavior Complaining Behavior Brand Loyalty Adoption and Diffusion of Innovations Predicting Market Development Across Cultures Conclusion Notes Appendix A: GNI per Capita at Purchasing Power Parity 2008 (US$) and Hofstede Country Scores for 68 Countries Appendix B: Data Sources Name Index Subject Index About the Author
Marieke de Mooij, Ph.D. (Netherlands), is a consultant in cross-cultural communications, as well as a retired profesora associada of international advertising at the University of Navarra in Spain and visiting professor at several universities across the world. She is the author of several academic publications on the influence of culture on marketing and advertising. She has also authored books on culture and consumer behavior as well as culture and communication theory worldwide.