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Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods
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List of Contributors xi 1 Introduction and Overview 1 Richard Podolak and Darryl G. Black 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Definition of Low-Moisture Foods (LMF) and Water Activity Controlled Foods 2 1.3 Salmonella as a Continuing Challenge and Ongoing Problem in Low-Moisture Foods 4 1.4 Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella spp. and Other Implicated Microbial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 6 1.5 Major Safety Concerns in Low-Moisture Foods 16 1.6 Content and Brief Book Chapter Review 17 1.7 Goal of the Book 21 1.8 How to Use the Book 21 References 22 2 Regulatory Requirements for Low-Moisture Foods - The New Preventive Controls Landscape (FSMA) 29 Jeffrey T. Barach and George E. Dunaif 2.1 Introduction 29 2.2 FSMA Sanitation and cGMPs 32 2.3 FSMA Preventive Controls 34 2.4 Process Controls 35 2.5 Sanitation Controls 36 2.6 Supplier Controls 37 2.7 Summary of Requirements for Low-Moisture FSMA Regulated Products 38 References 39 3 Potential Sources and Risk Factors 41 Elizabeth M. Grasso ]Kelley, Ai Kataoka and Lisa Lucore 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Raw Ingredients Control and Handling 43 3.3 Pest Control 49 3.4 Salmonella Harborage in the Facility 55 3.5 Conclusions 62 References 62 4 Persistence of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 67 Elena Enache, Richard Podolak, Ai Kataoka and Linda J. Harris 4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Factors Affecting Survival of Salmonella and Other Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 67 4.3 Recovery of Salmonella Cells Stressed by Low-Moisture Foods 75 4.4 Mechanism of Salmonella Survival in Food Product and Processing Environment 75 4.5 Other Vegetative Pathogens 79 4.6 Summary 79 References 80 5 Best Industry Practices to Control Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods 87 Lisa Lucore, David Anderson, Elizabeth M. Grasso ]Kelley and Ai Kataoka 5.1 Introduction 87 5.2 Sanitation Practices 89 5.3 Current Good Manufacturing Practice 112 References 114 6 Heat Resistance of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 121 Richard Podolak, Lisa Lucore and Linda J. Harris 6.1 Introduction 121 6.2 Factors Affecting Heat Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens 122 6.3 Use of Published Heat Resistance Data to Establish Lethal Process Lethality in Low-Moisture Foods 133 6.4 Summary 143 References 143 7 Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods 149 David Anderson, Nathan Anderson, Linda J. Harris and Wilfredo Ocasio 7.1 Introduction 149 7.2 Definitions 150 7.3 Tasks of Validation 150 7.4 Task 1: Assemble a Validation Team 151 7.5 Task 2: Identify the Hazard to be Controlled Through Hazard Analysis 151 7.6 Task 3: Identify a Validation Approach for the Control Measure 152 7.7 Task 4: Conduct the In-Production Validation 163 7.8 Task 5: Write the Results of the Validation in a Validation Report 165 7.10 Task 6: Implement the Control Measure, Monitors and Record Review 167 7.11 Task 7: Verify that the Control Measure is Operating as Intended 168 7.12 Task 8: Re-evaluate the Control Measure Periodically 169 7.13 Conclusion 170 References 171 8 Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods 175 Elena Enache, Shaunti Luce and Lisa Lucore 8.1 Introduction 175 8.2 Sampling Plans 175 8.3 Types of Methods 184 8.4 Matrices Testing Challenges 192 8.5 Conclusion 194 References 194 9 Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods 197 Shirin J. Abd, Carrie M.H. Ferstl and Wilfredo Ocasio 9.1 Introduction 197 9.2 Kinetics of Microbial Destruction 198 9.3 Experimental Design and Execution 200 References 215 10 Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 219 Sofia M. Santillana Farakos, Michelle Danyluk, Donald Schaffner, Regis Pouillot, Linda J. Harris and Bradley P. Marks 10.1 An Introduction to Modeling Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 219 10.2 Developing a Predictive Model for Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 220 10.3 Model Validation 226 10.4 Models in Risk Assessment 228 10.5 Summary 234 References 234 11 Spoilage Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods 241 Melinda Hayman and Richard Podolak 11.1 Introduction 241 11.2 Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Low-Moisture Foods 241 11.3 Factors Influencing Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods 244 11.4 Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods 247 11.5 Heat Resistance of Yeasts in Low-Moisture Foods 247 11.6 Preventing and Reducing Spoilage in Low-Moisture Foods 250 11.7 Conclusions 251 References 251 Index 255

About the Author

Richard Podolak, PhD, is Senior Scientist with the Grocery Manufacturers Association, based in Washington DC, USA. Darryl G. Black, PhD, is Associate Director for Research with Food and Drug Administration, Bedford Park, IL, USA.

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