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Copper, Brass, and Bronze Surfaces


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Table of Contents

Preface xi Chapter 1 Introduction-Element 29 1 Introduction 1 Color 6 Colors of Alloys 8 Copper Minerals 12 History 13 The Modern Copper Production Process 19 Sustainability, Environmental, and Hygienic Concerns 22 Copper and Water 23 Health and Safety 24 Copper: The Antimicrobial Metal 25 Copper Alloys for the Arts 26 Chapter 2 Copper and Its Alloys 31 Introduction 31 The Rich History of Copper Alloys 31 Elements Added to Copper 33 Alloy Designation System 34 The Unified Numbering System 34 Tempers 36 Wrought Copper Alloys 38 Brasses 40 Leaded Brasses 49 Tin Brasses 54 Phosphor-Bronze Alloys 56 Aluminum-Bronze Alloys 58 Silicon-Bronze Alloys 60 Copper-Nickel and Nickel-Silver Alloys 61 Cast Alloys 66 Red Brasses 69 Yellow Brasses 71 Silicon-Bronze Alloys 73 A Tin-Bronze Alloy 76 Nickel-Silver Alloys 77 A Manganese-Bronze Alloy 78 Chapter 3 Surface Finishes 79 Introduction 79 Mill Surfaces 80 Mechanical Finishes and Temporary Protection 81 Color from Oxidation and Chemical Reactions 91 Textures 123 Tin-Coated Copper 135 Melted Copper Alloy Surfacing 136 Copper and Glass 137 Protecting the Surface 138 Chapter 4 Expectations of the Visual Surface 139 Introduction 139 Intent: An Unchanged Surface Appearance 143 Intent: A Surface Appearance That Changes Naturally 154 Flatness 155 Texturing the Surface 160 Initial Oxidation on Copper Alloys 161 In Situ Patination 163 Prepatination 164 The Effect of Sealants 166 The Cast Surface 167 Arriving at the Best Possible Outcome 167 Chapter 5 Designing with the Available Forms 173 A Brief History 173 Wrought Forms 176 The Cast Form 204 Chapter 6 Fabrication Processes and Techniques 211 Introduction 211 Forming 213 V-cutting 215 Cutting Copper Alloys 220 Machining 227 Soldering, Brazing, and Welding 231 Casting 241 Chapter 7 Corrosion Characteristics 251 General Information 251 Categories of Corrosion 260 Environmental Exposures 279 Acids and Bases 283 Copper Alloy Surface Categories 286 Chapter 8 Maintaining the Copper Alloy Surface 295 Introduction 295 Protecting the New Copper Alloy Surface 296 Achieving Physical Cleanliness 296 Achieving Chemical Cleanliness 311 Achieving Mechanical Cleanliness 320 Repairing Patinas 326 Protecting the Surfaces of Copper and Copper Alloys 328 Cleaning the Copper Surface 333 Removing Copper Stains from Other Substances 334 Deteriorating Patinas 335 Appendix A Comparative Attributes of Metals Used in Art and Architecture 337 Appendix B Hardware Finish Codes and Descriptions 341 Appendix C Numbering Systems Used for Copper Alloys 345 Further Reading 347 Index 349

About the Author

L. WILLIAM ZAHNER, is president and CEO of A. Zahner Company, Inc. and chairman of Metalabs LLC, and is an internationally recognized expert on the design and use of architectural metals. He is the author of Architectural Metal Surfaces and Architectural Metals: A Guide to Selection, Specification, and Performance, both from Wiley.

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