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Critical Reviews in Tropical Medicine
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Table of Contents

1. The Special Programme For Research And Training In Tropical Diseases.- 1. Origins, Objectives, and Diseases.- 2. The Modus Operandi of the Programme.- 2.1. Scientific Working Groups.- 2.2. Research Strengthening Group.- 2.3. The Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee.- 2.4. Joint Coordinating Board.- 2.5. The Executing Agency.- 2.6. Budget.- 3. Research and Development.- 3.1. Malaria.- 3.2. Schistosomiasis.- 3.3 Filariasis.- 3.4. African Trypanosomiases.- 3.5. Chagas' Disease.- 3.6. Leprosy.- 3.7. Leishmaniasis.- 3.8. Epidemiology.- 3.9. Biomedical Sciences.- 3.10. Biological Control of Vectors.- 3.11. Social and Economic Research.- 4. The Strengthening of Research Capability.- 5. Field Research.- 6. Collaboration with Other Funding Agencies.- 7. Collaboration with Industry.- 8. Information on the Programme's Activities.- 9. An Interim Assessment.- 2. Infant and Child Mortality in Developing Countries.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Measuring Early-Age Mortality.- 3. Data Sources.- 3.1. Vital Registration.- 3.2. Censuses and Surveys.- 3.3. Surveillance Systems.- 4. The Age Pattern of Mortality.- 5. Early-Age Mortality Levels.- 5.1. Africa.- 5.2. Latin America.- 5.3. Asia.- 5.4. Summary.- 6. Early-Age Mortality Trends.- 6.1. Africa.- 6.2. Latin America.- 6.3. Asia.- 6.4. Summary.- 7. Early-Age Mortality and Levels of Per Capita Income.- 8. Intracountry Variation.- 8.1. Regional Variation.- 8.2. Urban-Rural Variation.- 8.3. Maternal Education.- 8.4. Birth Order, Birth Interval, and Maternal Age.- 8.5. Breast-Feeding.- 8.6. Birth Weight.- 8.7. Single or Multiple Births.- 8.8. Sex of Child.- 9. Causes of Early-Age Deaths.- 10. Synergistic Interrelations with Malnutrition.- 11. Further Factors.- 11.1. Water and Toilet Facilities.- 11.2. Health Service Availability.- 11.3. Climatic Seasonality.- 12. Infant versus Child Mortality.- 13. Conclusion.- References.- 3. Oral Rehydration Therapy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Evolution of ORT.- 2.1. Early Empirical Use of ORT.- 2.2. Glucose-Linked Enhanced Sodium Absorption and Its Early Application in ORT.- 2.3. A Critical Look at the Scientific Basis of ORT.- 2.4. Oral Rehydration Formulation.- 3. ORT in the Community.- 4. ORT and Feeding Practices.- 5. ORS as an Absorption-Promoting Drug.- 5.1. Clinical Studies Supporting the Postulate.- 5.2. Future Prospects.- References.- 4. Functional Consequences of Iron Deficiency: Nonerythroid Effects.- 1. Immunocompetence and Infection.- 1.1. Immune Responses.- 1.2. Iron Status and Incidence of Infections.- 1.3. Iron Administration, Bacterial Growth, and Infection.- 2. Gastrointestinal System.- 3. Thermoregulation.- 4. Physical Work Capacity.- 4.1. Respiratory and Cardiovascular Adjustments.- 4.2. Human Studies.- 4.3. Animal Studies.- 4.4. Additional Comments.- 5. Cognition and Behavior.- References.- 5. Hypolactasia: Geographical Distribution, Diagnosis, and Practical Significance.- 1. Geographical Distribution of Primary (Genetically Determined) Hypolactasia and Persistence of Lactase.- 1.1. Distribution of PL in the Indian Subcontinent.- 1.2. Distribution of PL in Northern Africa.- 1.3. Distribution of PL in Europe.- 1.4. Incidence of PL in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and Australia.- 1.5. Incidence of PL in Children in Population Groups with a High Incidence of Adult Hypolactasia.- 2. Explanations for the Survival of PL.- 2.1. The Culture-Historical Hypothesis.- 2.2. The Calcium-Absorption Hypothesis.- 2.3. The Water-Absorption Hypothesis.- 2.4. The Weaning-Time Hypothesis.- 2.5. The Linkage-Disequilibrium Hypothesis.- 2.6. The Rotavirus Receptor and Uncoating Hypothesis.- 2.7. Protection against Colonic Infections.- 2.8. Resistance to Systemic Infections.- 2.9. Synthesis of the Various Hypotheses.- 3. Genetics and Possible Undesirable Effects of PL.- 3.1. Atherosclerosis.- 3.2. Cataract Formation.- 4. Secondary (Acquired) Hypolactasia.- 4.1. Small-Intestinal Infections and Malignancy.- 4.2. Malnutrition.- 4.3. Dietary Depression of Lactase Concentration.- 4.4. Miscellaneous Small-Intestinal Diseases.- 5. Clinical Significance of Hypolactasia.- 5.1. Symptoms Attributable to Hypolactasia.- 5.2. Effect on Other Nutrients.- 5.3. Lactose and Milk Supplements in the Presence of Hypolactasia.- 5.4. Alleviation of Symptoms Associated with Hypolactasia.- 5.5. Management of Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy in Hypolactasia.- 5.6. Advantage of Hypolactasia in Reducing Intestinal Lead Absorption.- 5.7. Importance of Falling Lactase Concentration in Infant Malnutrition.- 6. Adaptation to Hypolactasia.- 6.1. Upper Gastrointestinal Factors in Adaptation.- 6.2. Colonic Adaptation.- 7. Diagnosis of Lactase Status.- References.- 6. Immune Response to Leishmania.- 1. Leishmania and Leishmaniasis.- 1.1. The Parasite.- 1.2. The Clinical Forms.- 2. The Immune Response of Man in Various Leishmanial Infections...- 2.1. Immune Response in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.- 2.2. Immune Response in Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis.- 2.3. Immune Response in Visceral Leishmaniasis.- 2.4. Immune Response in Aberrant Forms of Leishmaniasis.- 2.5. The Spectral Concept in Leishmaniasis.- 3. The Experimental Models of Leishmaniasis and Their Relevance to the Disease in Man.- 3.1. Genetics of Resistance and Susceptibility in Animal Models..- 3.2. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.- 3.3. Visceral Leishmaniasis.- 4. Immune Response in Experimental Models of Infection.- 4.1. Immune Response of the Guinea Pig.- 4.2. Immune Responses of the Mouse.- 4.3. Miscellaneous.- 4.4. Assessment of the Role of Suppressor T Cells in the Outcome of the Disease.- 5. In Vitro Analysis of CMI Responses.- 5.1. The T Lymphocytes.- 5.2. The Killing of Leishmania by Macrophages.- 6. Analysis of Humoral Response to Leishmania Parasite.- 7. Conclusion.- References.- 7. Immunological Alterations in Chagas' Disease.- 1. The Parasite and the Disease.- 2. Immunity to T. cruzi.- 2.1. Natural Immunity.- 2.2. Acquired Immunity.- 3. Immunity to T. cruzi and Pathogenesis.- 3.1. Autoimmunity in T. cruzi Infections.- 3.2. T. cruzi-Induced Immunosuppression.- References.- 8. Immunity to Helminths and Prospects for Control.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunity to Helminths.- 2.1. Immunity in Vivo.- 2.2. Helminths as Antigens.- 2.3. Immune Responses.- 2.4. Restrictions on Immunity.- 2.5. Immunopathology.- 3. Immunologically Based Control.- 3.1. Vaccination against Infection.- 3.2. Vaccination against Transmission.- 3.3. Vaccination against Pathology.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 9. Structured Vaccines for Control of Fertility and Communicable Diseases.- 1. Feasibility.- 2. Antifertility Vaccines.- 2.1. The Anti-hCG Vaccine.- 3. Structured Vaccines.- 3.1. Concept of Linkage with Carriers.- 3.2. Adjuvant Conjugation.- 4. Experience with Pr-?-hCG-TT Vaccine.- 4.1. Efficacy.- 4.2. Limitations of Pr-?-hCG-TT.- 4.3. Immunopotentiation by Adjuvants.- 4.4. The Problem of Constitutional Variability.- 5. Immunocontraception with Preformed Antibodies.- References.

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