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Cybersecurity Law


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Table of Contents

About the Author xv Acknowledgment and Disclaimers xvii Foreword to the Second Edition (2019) xix Introduction to First Edition xxiii About the Companion Website xxxi 1 Data Security Laws and Enforcement Actions 1 1.1 FTC Data Security 2 1.1.1 Overview of Section 5 of the FTC Act 2 1.1.2 Wyndham: Does the FTC Have Authority to Regulate Data Security under Section 5 of the FTC Act? 6 1.1.3 LabMD: What Constitutes "Unfair" Data Security? 10 1.1.4 FTC June 2015 Guidance on Data Security, and 2017 Updates 13 1.1.5 FTC Data Security Expectations and the NIST Cybersecurity Framework 17 1.1.6 Lessons from FTC Cybersecurity Complaints 18 Failure to Secure Highly Sensitive Information 19 Use Industry-Standard Encryption for Sensitive Data 19 Routine Audits and Penetration Testing Are Expected 20 Health-Related Data Requires Especially Strong Safeguards 21 Data Security Protection Extends to Paper Documents 22 Business-to-Business Providers Also Are Accountable to the FTC for Security of Sensitive Data 24 Companies Are Responsible for the Data Security Practices of Their Contractors 25 Make Sure that Every Employee Receives Regular Data Security Training for Processing Sensitive Data 26 Privacy Matters, Even in Data Security 26 Limit the Sensitive Information Provided to Third Parties 27 Children's Data Requires Special Protection 27 Failure to Secure Payment Card Information 28 Adhere to Security Claims about Payment Card Data 28 Always Encrypt Payment Card Data 29 Payment Card Data Should Be Encrypted Both in Storage and at Rest 30 In-Store Purchases Pose Significant Cybersecurity Risks 31 Minimize Duration of Storage of Payment Card Data 33 Monitor Systems and Networks for Unauthorized Software 33 Apps Should Never Override Default App Store Security Settings 33 Failure to Adhere to Security Claims 34 Companies Must Address Commonly Known Security Vulnerabilities 34 Ensure that Security Controls Are Sufficient to Abide by Promises about Security and Privacy 35 Omissions about Key Security Flaws Also Can Be Misleading 38 Companies Must Abide by Promises for Security-Related Consent Choices 38 Companies that Promise Security Must Ensure Adequate Authentication Procedures 39 Adhere to Promises about Encryption 40 Promises About Security Extend to Vendors' Practices 41 Companies Cannot Hide Vulnerable Software in Products 41 1.2 State Data Breach Notification Laws 42 1.2.1 When Consumer Notifications Are Required 43 Definition of Personal Information 44 Encrypted Data 45 Risk of Harm 45 Safe Harbors and Exceptions to Notice Requirement 45 1.2.2 Notice to Individuals 46 Timing of Notice 46 Form of Notice 46 Content of Notice 47 1.2.3 Notice to Regulators and Consumer Reporting Agencies 47 1.2.4 Penalties for Violating State Breach Notification Laws 48 1.3 State Data Security Laws 48 1.3.1 Oregon 50 1.3.2 Rhode Island 51 1.3.3 Nevada 51 1.3.4 Massachusetts 52 1.3.5 Ohio 55 1.4 State Data Disposal Laws 56 2 Cybersecurity Litigation 57 2.1 Article III Standing 58 2.1.1 Applicable Supreme Court Rulings on Standing 59 2.1.2 Lower Court Rulings on Standing in Data Breach Cases 64 Injury-in-Fact 64 Broad View of Injury-in-Fact 64 Narrow View of Injury-in-Fact 68 Fairly Traceable 72 Redressability 72 2.2 Common Causes of Action Arising from Data Breaches 73 2.2.1 Negligence 74 Legal Duty and Breach of Duty 75 Cognizable Injury 76 Causation 79 2.2.2 Negligent Misrepresentation or Omission 80 2.2.3 Breach of Contract 82 2.2.4 Breach of Implied Warranty 88 2.2.5 Invasion of Privacy by Publication of Private Facts 92 2.2.6 Unjust Enrichment 93 2.2.7 State Consumer Protection Laws 95 2.3 Class Action Certification in Data Breach Litigation 97 2.4 Insurance Coverage for Cybersecurity Incidents 104 2.5 Protecting Cybersecurity Work Product and Communications from Discovery 108 2.5.1 Attorney-Client Privilege 110 2.5.2 Work Product Doctrine 112 2.5.3 Nontestifying Expert Privilege 115 2.5.4 Genesco v. Visa 116 2.5.5 In re Experian Data Breach Litigation 119 2.5.6 In re Premera 120 2.5.7 In re United Shore Financial Services 121 3 Cybersecurity Requirements for Specific Industries 123 3.1 Financial Institutions: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act Safeguards Rule 124 3.1.1 Interagency Guidelines 124 3.1.2 Securities and Exchange Commission Regulation S-P 126 3.1.3 FTC Safeguards Rule 128 3.2 New York Department of Financial Services Cybersecurity Regulations 130 3.3 Financial Institutions and Creditors: Red Flags Rule 133 3.3.1 Financial Institutions or Creditors 136 3.3.2 Covered Accounts 137 3.3.3 Requirements for a Red Flag Identity Theft Prevention Program 138 3.4 Companies that Use Payment and Debit Cards: Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) 139 3.5 California Internet of Things Cybersecurity Law 141 3.6 Health Providers: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule 142 3.7 Electric Transmission: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards 147 3.7.1 CIP-003-6: Cybersecurity-Security Management Controls 148 3.7.2 CIP-004-6: Personnel and Training 148 3.7.3 CIP-006-6: Physical Security of Cyber Systems 149 3.7.4 CIP-007-6: Systems Security Management 149 3.7.5 CIP-009-6: Recovery Plans for Cyber Systems 149 3.7.6 CIP-010-2: Configuration Change Management and Vulnerability Assessments 150 3.7.7 CIP-011-2: Information Protection 150 3.8 Nuclear Regulatory Commission Cybersecurity Regulations 150 3.9 South Carolina Insurance Cybersecurity Law 151 4 Cybersecurity and Corporate Governance 155 4.1 Securities and Exchange Commission Cybersecurity Expectations for Publicly Traded Companies 156 4.1.1 10-K Disclosures: Risk Factors 158 4.1.2 10-K Disclosures: Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) 159 4.1.3 10-K Disclosures: Description of Business 160 4.1.4 10-K Disclosures: Legal Proceedings 160 4.1.5 10-K Disclosures: Financial Statements 161 4.1.6 10K Disclosures: Board Oversight of Cybersecurity 161 4.1.7 Disclosing Data Breaches to Investors 161 4.1.8 Yahoo Data Breach 164 4.1.9 Cybersecurity and Insider Trading 165 4.2 Fiduciary Duty to Shareholders and Derivative Lawsuits Arising from Data Breaches 166 4.3 Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States and Cybersecurity 168 5 Anti-Hacking Laws 171 5.1 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 172 5.1.1 Origins of the CFAA 172 5.1.2 Access Without Authorization and Exceeding Authorized Access 173 Narrow View of "Exceeds Authorized Access" and "Without Authorization" 176 Broader View of "Exceeds Authorized Access" and "Without Authorization" 181 Attempts to Find a Middle Ground 183 5.1.3 The Seven Sections of the CFAA 184 CFAA Section (a)(1): Hacking to Commit Espionage 186 CFAA Section (a)(2): Hacking to Obtain Information 187 CFAA Section (a)(3): Hacking a Federal Government Computer 191 CFAA Section (a)(4): Hacking to Commit Fraud 192 CFAA Section (a)(5): Hacking to Damage a Computer 195 CFAA Section (a)(5)(A): Knowing Transmission that Intentionally Damages a Computer Without Authorization 195 CFAA Section (a)(5)(B): Intentional Access Without Authorization that Recklessly Causes Damage 198 CFAA Section (a)(5)(C): Intentional Access Without Authorization that Causes Damage and Loss 200 CFAA Section (a)(5): Requirements for Felony and Misdemeanor Cases 200 CFAA Section (a)(6): Trafficking in Passwords 203 CFAA Section (a)(7): Threatening to Damage or Obtain Information from a Computer 205 5.1.4 Civil Actions Under the CFAA 208 5.1.5 Criticisms of the CFAA 212 5.1.6 CFAA and Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure Programs 214 5.2 State Computer Hacking Laws 218 5.3 Section 1201 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 220 5.3.1 Origins of Section 1201 of the DMCA 221 5.3.2 Three Key Provisions of Section 1201 of the DMCA 222 DMCA Section 1201(a)(1) 222 DMCA Section 1201(a)(2) 227 Narrow Interpretation of Section (a)(2): Chamberlain Group v. Skylink Technologies 228 Broad Interpretation of Section (a)(2): MDY Industries, LLC v. Blizzard Entertainment 231 DMCA Section 1201(b)(1) 236 5.3.3 Section 1201 Penalties 238 5.3.4 Section 1201 Exemptions 239 5.3.5 The First Amendment and DMCA Section 1201 246 5.4 Economic Espionage Act 250 5.4.1 Origins of the Economic Espionage Act 250 5.4.2 Criminal Prohibitions on Economic Espionage and Theft of Trade Secrets 251 Definition of "Trade Secret" 252 "Knowing" Violations of the Economic Espionage Act 255 Purpose and Intent Required under Section 1831: Economic Espionage 255 Purpose and Intent Required under Section 1832: Theft of Trade Secrets 257 5.4.3 Civil Actions for Trade Secret Misappropriation: The Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2016 260 Definition of "Misappropriation" 261 Civil Seizures 263 Injunctions 264 Damages 265 Statute of Limitations 265 5.5 Budapest Convention on Cybercrime 266 6 U.S. Government Cyber Structure and Public-Private Cybersecurity Partnerships 269 6.1 U.S. Government's Civilian Cybersecurity Organization 269 6.2 Department of Homeland Security Information Sharing under the Cybersecurity Act of 2015 272 6.3 Critical Infrastructure Executive Order and the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Cybersecurity Framework 276 6.4 U.S. Military Involvement in Cybersecurity and the Posse Comitatus Act 284 6.5 Vulnerabilities Equities Process 286 7 Surveillance and Cyber 291 7.1 Fourth Amendment 292 7.1.1 Was the Search or Seizure Conducted by a Government Entity or Government Agent? 293 7.1.2 Did the Search or Seizure Involve an Individual's Reasonable Expectation of Privacy? 297 7.1.3 Did the Government Have a Warrant? 305 7.1.4 If the Government Did Not Have a Warrant, Did an Exception to the Warrant Requirement Apply? 308 7.1.5 Was the Search or Seizure Reasonable Under the Totality of the Circumstances? 310 7.2 Electronic Communications Privacy Act 311 7.2.1 Stored Communications Act 313 Section 2701: Third-Party Hacking of Stored Communications 317 Section 2702: Restrictions on Service Providers' Ability to Disclose Stored Communications and Records to the Government and Private Parties 318 Section 2703: Government's Ability to Require Service Providers to Turn Over Stored Communications and Customer Records 324 7.2.2 Wiretap Act 328 7.2.3 Pen Register Act 332 7.2.4 National Security Letters 334 7.3 Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) 335 7.4 Encryption and the All Writs Act 336 7.5 Encrypted Devices and the Fifth Amendment 339 8 Cybersecurity and Federal Government Contractors 343 8.1 Federal Information Security Management Act 344 8.2 NIST Information Security Controls for Government Agencies and Contractors 346 8.3 Classified Information Cybersecurity 350 8.4 Covered Defense Information and Controlled Unclassified Information 353 9 Privacy Laws 361 9.1 Section 5 of the FTC Act and Privacy 362 9.2 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 366 9.3 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act and California Financial Information Privacy Act 368 9.4 CAN-SPAM Act 369 9.5 Video Privacy Protection Act 371 9.6 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act 372 9.7 California Online Privacy Laws 375 9.7.1 California Online Privacy Protection Act (CalOPPA) 375 9.7.2 California Shine the Light Law 376 9.7.3 California Minor "Eraser Law" 378 9.8 California Consumer Privacy Act 380 9.9 Illinois Biometric Information Privacy Act 382 10 International Cybersecurity Law 385 10.1 European Union 386 10.2 Canada 396 10.3 China 400 10.4 Mexico 405 10.5 Japan 409 11 Cyber and the Law of War 413 11.1 Was the Cyberattack a "Use of Force" that Violates International Law? 414 11.2 If the Attack Was a Use of Force, Was that Force Attributable to a State? 417 11.3 Did the Use of Force Constitute an "Armed Attack" that Entitles the Target to Self-Defense? 418 11.4 If the Use of Force Was an Armed Attack, What Types of Self-Defense are Justified? 420 11.5 If the Nation Experiences Hostile Cyber Actions that Fall Short of Use of Force or Armed Attacks, What Options Are Available? 422 Appendix A: Text of Section 5 of the FTC Act 425 Appendix B: Summary of State Data Breach Notification Laws 433 Appendix C: Text of Section 1201 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act 493 Appendix D: Text of the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 505 Appendix E: Text of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act 513 Appendix F: Key Cybersecurity Court Opinions 579 Index 715

About the Author

JEFF KOSSEFF is Assistant Professor of Cybersecurity Law at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. He was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, and a recipient of the George Polk Award for national reporting.

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