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Data Requirements for Integrated Urban Water Management
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Table of Contents

List of Figures xix
List of Tables xxiv
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms xxvi
Glossary xxix
List of Contributors xxxiv
Acknowledgements xxxv

1 Introduction 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.1.1 Background and context 1
1.1.2 Objectives and scope 2
1.1.3 Why is an integrated data collection approach needed? 3
1.2 Overview of integrated urban water systems 3
1.2.1 IUWM concepts 3
1.2.2 Urban water system components 5
1.2.3 Variations in urban water systems world wide 11
1.2.4 Different data applications 12
1.3 Relationship to other guidelines 12
1.4 Relationship with other UNESCO IHP projects 14
1.5 References 15

PART I
Guiding principles for data acquisition management and use

2 Overview of guiding principles 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Principles 21
2.2.1 Integration as an overarching principle 21
2.2.2 Defining the objectives of monitoring 22
2.2.3 Identifying the variables to monitor 22
2.2.4 Considering spatial and temporal scale effects 22
2.2.5 Assessing and managing uncertainty 22
2.2.6 Selecting monitoring equipment 23
2.2.7 Validating the data 23
2.2.8 Data handling and storage 24
2.2.9 Using data to develop information and knowledge 24
2.2.10 Budgeting and financial and considerations 25
2.2.11 Social and institutional considerations 25
2.3 Summary of principles 27

3 Defining objectives and applications of monitoring 29
3.1 Introduction 29
3.2 Defining the objectives 29
3.3 Applications of monitoring: integrating across functional responsibilities 32
3.4 References 36

4 Selecting variables to monitor 37
4.1 Introduction 37
4.2 Site characteristics 37
4.3 Infrastructure characteristics 38
4.4 Urban meteorology 39
4.5 Water quantity 39
4.6 Water quality 40
4.7 Water bodies and aquatic ecosystem health 40
4.8 Socio-economic indicators 41
4.9 References 43
5 Spatial and temporal scale consideration 45
5.1 Introduction 45
5.2 Temporal and spatial representativeness of samples and data 46
5.2.1 Temporal variability 47
5.2.2 Spatial variability 60
5.3 Conclusions 62
5.4 References 62

6 Understanding and managing uncertainty 65
6.1 Introduction 65
6.2 Uncertainty analysis concepts, approaches and terminology 67
6.2.1 Uncertainty analysis concepts 67
6.2.2 Overview of Relevant uncertainty analysis approaches 68
6.2.3 Terminology 70
6.3 Uncertainty analysis implementation 72
6.3.1 The measurement process 73
6.3.2 Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty 74
6.3.3 Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty 75
6.3.4 Determining the combined standard uncertainty 75
6.3.5 Determining expanded uncertainty 76
6.3.6 Calibration 77
6.4 Implementation examples 78
6.4.1 Example 1: Calibration of a water level piezoresistive sensor 78
6.4.2 Example 2: Uncertainty in discharge measurement 84
6.4.3 Example 3: Uncertainty in turbidity measurement 86
6.5 Recommendations for uncertainty analysis implementation 87
6.6 Uncertainty analysis and the decision-making process 88
6.7 References 89

Chapter 7 Selecting monitoring equipment 91
7.1 Introduction 91
7.2 Definition of terms and historical overview 91
7.3 Modern monitoring equipment 92
7.3.1 Sensor characteristics important for equipment selection 93
7.3.2 Criteria for the selection of monitoring equipment 95
7.4 Specific considerations for data integration within IUWM 100
7.5 Specific considerations for developing countries 100
7.6 References 101

8 Data validation: principles and implementation 103
8.1 Introduction 103
8.2 Basic principles of data validation 104
8.3 Validation methods 107
8.4 Local level validation 107
8.4.1 OTHU context and objectives 108
8.4.2 Statistical and signal processing methods 108
8.4.3 Data validation methods used in urban hydrology 108
8.4.4 Development of an automatic pre-validation method 109
8.4.5 Validation criteria 109
8.4.6 Pre-validation assessment 117
8.4.7 Examples of application 118
8.5 Global level validation 122
8.6 Data validation and performance indicators 123
8.7 Validation of external laboratory analysis 124
8.8 References 124

9 Data handling and storage 127
9.1 Introduction 127
9.2 Historical overview 127
9.3 Data flow and databases 128
9.4 Inputs to and outputs from the main database 130
9.5 Integration of databases 133
9.6 Considerations for database usage within an IUWM framework 134
9.7 References 137

10 Use of data to create information and knowledge 139
10.1 Introduction 139
10.2 Definition of terms 139
10.3 From data to information 141
10.3.1 Geographic information systems 143
10.3.2 Statistical analysis 144
10.3.3 Simulation models 145
10.3.4 Data mining 147
10.3.5 Self-organizing maps 150
10.3.6 Internet and grid systems 150
10.3.7 Object orientation 152
10.4 From information to knowledge 154
10.4.1 Resolving data bottlenecks 154
10.4.2 Knowledge application 155
10.5 References 156

11 Social and institutional considerations 159
11.1 Introduction 159
11.2 The importance of social and institutional factors 160
11.3 Key principles 161
11.3.1 Leadership and commitment 161
11.3.2 Public participation 164
11.3.3 Transparency and accountability 165
11.3.4 Coordinated data access and sharing 166
11.3.5 Evaluation and action learning 167
11.4 References 168

12 Financial considerations 171
12.1 Introduction 171
12.2 Principles for balancing financial constraints and data requirements 171
12.3 Strategies for maximizing data value with limited resources 173
12.3.1 Interrogation of existing data sources 173
12.3.2 New technologies 173
12.3.3 Sharing of monitoring networks 174
12.3.4 Integration of monitoring and models 174
12.3.5 Composite sampling 174
12.4 References 174

PART II
Consideration and integration of specific urban water cycle components
13 Monitoring to understand urban water cycle interactions 177
13.1 Introduction 177
13.2 Monitoring urban water cycle interactions 186

14 Urban meteorology 187
14.1 Introduction 187
14.2 Interactions with the urban water cycle 187
14.3 Climate cycles and variability 189
14.4 Meteorological variables and data sources 190
14.4.1 Key variables 190
14.4.2 Meteorological data sources 190
14.5 Considerations for the collection and use of meteorological data 190
14.5.1 Spatial scales 190
14.5.2 Temporal scales 192
14.5.3 Climate change and its implications 193
14.6 References 194

15 Water supply 197
15.1 Introduction 197
15.2 Interaction with other urban water system components 198
15.3 Specific requirements within water supply subsystems 198
15.3.1 Water intake 200
15.3.2 Conveyance of untreated and clean water 201
15.3.3 Water treatment and water quality conditioning 203
15.3.4 Reservoirs 204
15.3.5 Distribution networks 204
15.3.6 Consumers 207
15.4 The role of measurement 207
15.4.1 Measurement for selling water 208
15.4.2 Calculating the water balance 208
15.4.3 Process and water quality control 210
15.4.4 Diagnostic measurements 210
15.5 References 213

16 Wastewater 215
16.1 Introduction 215
16.2 Interactions with other urban water cycle components 216
16.2.1 Water supply 216
16.2.2 Combined sewer systems and storm sewer systems 216
16.3 Monitoring requirements 218
16.3.1 Parameters to monitor 218
16.3.2 Quantifying sewer leakage 219
16.3.3 Detecting cross-connections 220
16.3.4 Measuring impacts on receiving water 220
16.4 References 222

17 Stormwater 225
17.1 Introduction 225
17.2 Interactions with other urban water cycle components 226
17.3 Monitoring requirements 266
17.3.1 Catchment characteristics 226
17.3.2 Drainage and treatment network 229
17.3.3 Urban meteorology 230
17.3.4 Monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation 230
17.3.5 Temporal distribution of precipitation monitoring 230
17.4 Stormwater quantity 231
17.4.1 Measurements within the drainage system 232
17.4.2 Measurements within the catchment 233
17.4.3 Measurements within stormwater treatment systems 233
17.5 Stormwater quality 235
17.5.1 Monitoring water quality within the drainage network 236
17.5.2 Monitoring water quality within stormwater treatment systems 237
17.6 Stormwater impacts on aquatic ecosystem health 238
17.7 References 239

18 Combined sewers 243
18.1 Introduction 243
18.2 Interactions with other urban water cycle components 243
18.3 Monitoring requirements 243
18.4 References 249

19 Groundwater 251
19.1 Introduction 251
19.2 Interaction of urban groundwater with other urban water systems 251
19.3 Monitoring urban groundwater quantity and quality 254
19.4 Example of an integrated groundwater monitoring programme 256
19.5 References 258

20 Aquatic ecosystems 259
20.1 Introduction 259
20.2 Interactions with the urban water cycle components 260
20.3 Imperatives for aquatic ecosystem monitoring and management 261
20.4 Applications for data on aquatic ecosystems 261
20.4.1 Hydrologic and hydraulic stressors 261
20.4.2 Water quality stressors 263
20.4.3 Geomorphic stressors 263
20.4.4 Catchment-scale stressor indicators 264
20.4.5 Relative importance of stressors for different types of aquatic ecosystem 265
20.4.6 Additional data considerations for defining protection and rehabilitation strategies 266
20.5 Monitoring requirements 267
20.5.1 The `why' 268
20.5.2 The `what' 268
20.5.3 The `where' 268
20.5.4 The `when' 268
20.6 References 270

21 Human health 273
21.1 Introduction 273
21.2 Human health interactions within the urban water cycle 274
21.3 Monitoring requirements 276
21.3.1 Monitoring rationale 276
21.3.2 Selection of variables to monitor 277
21.3.3 Sampling schedules: location and frequency 278
21.3.4 Sampling methods and equipment 278
21.3.5 Data handling, interpretation and reporting 279
21.3.6 Quality control 279
21.3.7 Integration with other urban water monitoring programmes 279
21.4 References 280

22 Social and institutional components 281
22.1 Introduction 281
22.2 Interactions with other urban water cycle components 282
22.3 The importance of social and institutional data 283
22.4 Context mapping approach to collecting social and institutional data 284
22.4.1 The bio-physical profile 285
22.4.2 The social profile 285
22.4.3 The organizational profile 292
22.5 References 299

PART III
Case studies
Introduction 301

23 The OTHU Case study: integrated monitoring of stormwater
in Lyon, France 303
23.1 Introduction 303
23.2 Description of the Django Reinhardt facility and its environment 304
23.2.1 Catchment and drainage system 304
23.2.2 Soil and alluvial aquifer characteristics 306
23.3 Monitoring system 307
23.3.1 Monitoring climate 307
23.3.2 Monitoring of inlet discharges and pollutant loads in both basins 307
23.3.3 Monitoring of settling processes 309
23.3.4 Monitoring the non-saturated zone 310
23.4 Groundwater monitoring 310
23.5 Conclusion 312
23.6 References 313

24 Wireless sensor network for monitoring a large-scale
infrastructure system in Boston, USA 315
24.1 Introduction 315
24.1.1 Overview of Wireless Sensor Networks 315
24.1.2 Application potential 316
24.1.3 Conventional data acquisition systems 316
24.1.4 Innovative solutions based on Wireless Network Sensors 317
24.2 Project rationale and objectives 318
24.2.1 Rationale 318
24.2.2 Objectives 319
24.3 Components of the Boston Wireless Network System 319
24.3.1 Hydraulic and water quality monitoring 319
24.3.2 Remote acoustic leak detection 321
24.3.3 Monitoring combined sewer overflows 323
24.4 Wireless Monitoring System: system architecture 324
24.4.1 Tier I: sensor nodes 325
24.4.2 Tier II: data gatherers and gateway 327
24.5 Deployment of the system 327
24.5.1 Installation 327
24.5.2 Performance 330
24.6 Conclusions 332
24.7 References 332

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