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DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing


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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to DeGarmo's Materials and Processes in Manufacturing

1.1 Materials, Manufacturing, and the Standardof Living

1.2 Manufacturing and Production Systems

Case Study Famous Manufacturing Engineers

Chapter 2 Manufacturing Systems Design

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Manufacturing Systems

2.3 Control of the Manufacturing System

2.4 Classification of Manufacturing Systems

2.5 Summary of Factory Designs

Case Study Jury Duty for an Engineer

Chapter 3 Properties of Materials

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Static Properties

3.3 Dynamic Properties

3.4 Temperature Effects (Both High and Low)

3.5 Machinability, Formability, and Weldability

3.6 Fracture Toughness and the Fracture Mechanics Approach

3.7 Physical Properties

3.8 Testing Standards and Testing Concerns

Case Study Separation of Mixed Materials

Chapter 4 Nature of Metals and Alloys

4.1 Structure Property Processing Performance Relationships

4.2 The Structure of Atoms

4.3 Atomic Bonding

4.4 Secondary Bonds

4.5 Atom Arrangements in Materials

4.6 Crystal Structures of Metals

4.7 Development of a Grain Structure

4.8 Elastic Deformation

4.9 Plastic Deformation

4.10 Dislocation Theory of Slippage

4.11 Strain Hardening or Work Hardening

4.12 Plastic Deformation in Polycrystalline Metals

4.13 Grain Shape and Anisotropic Properties

4.14 Fracture of Metals

4.15 Cold Working, Recrystallization, and Hot Working

4.16 Grain Growth

4.17 Alloys and Alloy Types

4.18 Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties

Chapter 5 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams and the Iron Carbon System

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Phases

5.3 Equilibrium Phase Diagrams

5.4 Iron Carbon Equilibrium Diagram

5.5 Steels and the Simplified Iron Carbon Diagram

5.6 Cast Irons

Case Study Fish Hooks

Chapter 6 Heat Treatment

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Processing Heat Treatments

6.3 Heat Treatments Used to Increase Strength

6.4 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Nonferrous Metals

6.5 Strengthening Heat Treatments for Steel

6.6 Surface Hardening of Steel

6.7 Furnaces

6.8 Heat Treatment and Energy

Case Study A Carpenter s Claw Hammer

Chapter 7 Ferrous Metals and Alloys

7.1 Introduction to History-Dependent Materials

7.2 Ferrous Metals

7.3 Iron

7.4 Steel

7.5 Stainless Steels

7.6 Tool Steels

7.7 Cast Irons

7.8 Cast Steels

7.9 The Role of Processing on Cast Properties

Case Study The Paper Clip

Chapter 8 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Copper and Copper Alloys

8.3 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

8.4 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

8.5 Zinc and Zinc Alloys

8.6 Titanium and Titanium Alloys

8.7 Nickel-Based Alloys

8.8 Superalloys, Refractory Metals, and Other Materials Designed for High-Temperature Service

8.9 Lead and Tin, and Their Alloys

8.10 Some Lesser-Known Metals and Alloys

8.11 Metallic Glasses

8.12 Graphite

Case Study Hip Replacement Prosthetics

Chapter 9 Nonmetallic Materials: Plastics, Elastomers, Ceramics, and Composites

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Plastics

9.3 Elastomers

9.4 Ceramics

9.5 Composite Materials

Case Study Lightweight Armor

Chapter 10 Material Selection

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Material Selection and Manufacturing Processes

10.3 The Design Process

10.4 Approaches to Material Selection

10.5 Additional Factors to Consider

10.6 Consideration of the Manufacturing Process

10.7 Ultimate Objective

10.8 Materials Substitution

10.9 Effect of Product Liability on Materials Selection

10.10 Aids to Material Selection

Case Study Material Selection

Chapter 11 Fundamentals of Casting

11.1 Introduction to Materials Processing

11.2 Introduction to Casting

11.3 Casting Terminology

11.4 The Solidification Process

11.5 Patterns

11.6 Design Considerations in Castings

11.7 The Casting Industry

Case Study The Cast Oil-Field Fitting

Chapter 12 Expendable-Mold Casting Processes

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Sand Casting

12.3 Cores and Core Making

12.4 Other Expendable-Mold Processes with Multiple-Use Patterns

12.5 Expendable-Mold Processes Using Single-Use Patterns

12.6 Shakeout, Cleaning, and Finishing

12.7 Summary

Case Study Movable and Fixed Jaw Pieces for a Heavy-Duty Bench Vise

Chapter 13 Multiple-Use-Mold Casting Processes

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Permanent-Mold Casting

13.3 Die Casting

13.4 Squeeze Casting and Semisolid Casting

13.5 Centrifugal Casting

13.6 Continuous Casting

13.7 Melting

13.8 Pouring Practice

13.9 Cleaning, Finishing, and Heat Treating of Castings

13.10 Automation in Foundry Operations

13.11 Process Selection

Case Study Baseplate for a Household Steam Iron

Chapter 14 Fabrication of Plastics, Ceramics, and Composites

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Fabrication of Plastics

14.3 Processing of Rubber and Elastomers

14.4 Processing of Ceramics

14.5 Fabrication of Composite Materials

Case Study Automotive and Light Truck Fuel Tanks

Chapter 15 Fundamentals of Metal Forming

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Forming Processes: Independent Variables

15.3 Dependent Variables

15.4 Independent Dependent Relationships

15.5 Process Modeling

15.6 General Parameters

15.7 Friction and Lubrication Under Metalworking Conditions

15.8 Temperature Concerns

15.9 Formability

Case Study Interior Tub of a Top-Loading Washing Machine

Chapter 16 Bulk-Forming Processes

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Classification of Deformation Processes

16.3 Bulk Deformation Processes

16.4 Rolling

16.5 Forging

16.6 Extrusion

16.7 Wire, Rod, and Tube Drawing

16.8 Cold Forming, Cold Forging, and Impact Extrusion

16.9 Piercing

16.10 Other Squeezing Processes

16.11 Surface Improvement by Deformation Processing

Case Study Handle and Body of a Large Ratchet Wrench

Chapter 17 Sheet-Forming Processes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Shearing Operations

17.3 Bending

17.4 Drawing and Stretching Processes

17.5 Alternative Methods of Producing Sheet-Type Products

17.6 Pipe Manufacture

17.7 Presses

Case Study Automotive Body Panels

Chapter 18 Powder Metallurgy

18.1 Introduction

18.2 The Basic Process

18.3 Powder Manufacture

18.4 Microcrystalline and Amorphous Material Produced by Rapid Cooling

18.5 Powder Testing and Evaluation

18.6 Powder Mixing and Blending

18.7 Compacting

18.8 Sintering

18.9 Recent Advances in Sintering

18.10 Hot-Isostatic Pressing

18.11 Other Techniques to Produce High-Density Powder Metallurgy Products

18.12 Metal Injection Molding or Powder Injection Molding

18.13 Secondary Operations

18.14 Properties of Powder Metallurgy Products

18.15 Design of Powder Metallurgy Parts

18.16 Powder Metallurgy Products

18.17 Advantages and Disadvantages of Powder Metallurgy

18.18 Process Summary

Case Study Steering Gear for a Riding Lawn Mower/Garden Tractor

Chapter 19 Additive Processes: Rapid Prototyping and Direct- Digital Manufacturing

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Rapid Prototyping and Direct-Digital Manufacturing

19.3 Layerwise Manufacturing

19.4 Liquid-Based Processes

19.5 Powder-Based Processes

19.6 Deposition-Based Processes

19.7 Uses and Applications

19.8 Pros, Cons, and Current and Future Trends

19.9 Economic Considerations

Chapter 20 Fundamentals of Machining/Orthogonal Machining

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Fundamentals

20.3 Forces and Power in Machining

20.4 Orthogonal Machining (Two Forces)

20.5 Chip Thickness Ratio, rc

20.6 Mechanics of Machining (Statics)

20.7 Shear Strain, g, and Shear Front Angle, w

20.8 Mechanics of Machining (Dynamics)

20.9 Summary

Case Study Orthogonal Plate Machining Experiment at Auburn University

Chapter 21 Cutting Tools for Machining

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Cutting Tool Materials

21.3 Tool Geometry

21.4 Tool-Coating Processes

21.5 Tool Failure and Tool Life

21.6 Flank Wear

21.7 Cutting Fluids

21.8 Economics of Machining

Case Study Comparing Tool Materials Based on Tool Life

Chapter 22 Turning and Boring Processes

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Fundamentals of Turning, Boring, and Facing Turning

22.3 Lathe Design and Terminology

22.4 Cutting Tools for Lathes

22.5 Workholding in Lathes

Case Study Estimating the Machining Time for Turning

Chapter 23 Drilling and Related Hole-Making Processes

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Fundamentals of the Drilling Process

23.3 Types of Drills

23.4 Tool Holders for Drills

23.5 Workholding for Drilling

23.6 Machine Tools for Drilling

23.7 Cutting Fluids for Drilling

23.8 Counterboring, Countersinking, and Spot Facing

23.9 Reaming

Case Study Bolt-down Leg on a Casting

Chapter 24 Milling

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Fundamentals of Milling Processes

24.3 Milling Tools and Cutters

24.4 Machines for Milling

Case Study HSS versus Tungsten Carbide Milling

Chapter 25 NC/CNC Processes and Adaptive Control: A(4) and A(5) Levels of Automation

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Basic Principles of Numerical Control

25.3 Machining Center Features and Trends

25.4 Ultra-High-Speed Machining Centers

25.5 Summary

Chapter 26 Abrasive Machining Processes

26.1 Introduction

26.2 Abrasives

26.3 Grinding Wheel Structure and Grade

26.4 Grinding Wheel Identification

26.5 Grinding Machines

26.6 Honing

26.7 Superfinishing

26.8 Free Abrasives

26.9 Design Considerations In Grinding

Case Study Process Planning for the MfE

Chapter 27 Workholding Devices for Machine Tools

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Conventional Fixture Design

27.3 Tool Design Steps

27.4 Clamping Considerations

27.5 Chip Disposal

27.6 Unloading and Loading Time

27.7 Example of Jig Design

27.8 Types of Jigs

27.9 Conventional Fixtures

27.10 Modular Fixturing

27.11 Setup and Changeover

27.12 Clamps

27.13 Other Workholding Devices

27.14 Economic Justification of Jigs and Fixtures

Case Study Fixture versus No Fixture in Milling

Chapter 28 Nontraditional Manufacturing Processes

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Chemical Machining Processes

28.3 Electrochemical Machining Processes

28.4 Electrical Discharge Machining

Case Study Vented Cap Screws

Chapter 29 Fundamentals of Joining

29.1 Introduction to Consolidation Processes

29.2 Classification of Welding and Thermal Cutting Processes

29.3 Some Common Concerns

29.4 Types of Fusion Welds and Types of Joints

29.5 Design Considerations

29.6 Heat Effects

29.7 Weldability or Joinability

29.8 Summary

Chapter 30 Gas Flame and Arc Processes

30.1 Oxyfuel-Gas Welding

30.2 Oxygen Torch Cutting

30.3 Flame Straightening

30.4 Arc Welding

30.5 Consumable-Electrode Arc Welding

30.6 Nonconsumable-Electrode Arc Welding

30.7 Welding Equipment

30.8 Arc Cutting

30.9 Metallurgical and Heat Effects in Thermal Cutting

Case Study Bicycle Frame Construction and Repair

Chapter 31 Resistance- and Solid-State Welding Processes

31.1 Introduction

31.2 Theory of Resistance Welding

31.3 Resistance-Welding Processes

31.4 Advantages and Limitations of Resistance Welding

31.5 Solid-State Welding Processes

Case Study Manufacture of an Automobile Muffler

Chapter 32 Other Welding Processes, Brazing, and Soldering

32.1 Introduction

32.2 Other Welding and Cutting Processes

32.3 Surface Modification by Welding-Related Processes

32.4 Brazing

32.5 Soldering

Case Study Impeller of a Pharmaceutical Company Industrial Shredder/Disposal

Chapter 33 Adhesive Bonding, Mechanical Fastening, and Joining of Nonmetals

33.1 Adhesive Bonding

33.2 Mechanical Fastening

33.3 Joining of Plastics

33.4 Joining of Ceramics and Glass

33.5 Joining of Composites

Case Study Golf Club Heads with Insert

Chapter 34 Surface Engineering

34.1 Introduction

34.2 Abrasive Cleaning and Finishing

34.3 Chemical Cleaning

34.4 Coatings

34.5 Vaporized Metal Coatings

34.6 Clad Materials

34.7 Textured Surfaces

34.8 Coil-Coated Sheets

34.9 Edge Finishing and Burrs

Case Study Dana Lynn s Fatigue Lesson

Chapter 35 Microelectric Manufacturing and Assembly

35.1 Introduction

35.2 How Electronic Products Are Made

35.3 Semiconductors

35.4 How Integrated Circuits Are Made

35.5 How the Silicon Wafer Is Made

35.6 Fabricating Integrated Circuits on Silicon Wafers

35.7 Thin-Film Deposition

35.8 Integrated Circuit Packaging

35.9 Printed Circuit Boards

35.10 Electronic Assembly

Chapter 36 Micro/Meso/Nano Fabrication Processes

36.1 Introduction

36.2 Additive Processes

36.3 Metrology at the Micro/Meso/Nano Level Chapter 37 Measurement and Inspection (online only)

37.1 Introduction

37.2 Standards of Measurement

37.3 Allowance and Tolerance

37.4 Inspection Methods for Measurement

37.5 Measuring Instruments

37.6 Vision Systems for Measurement

37.7 Coordinate Measuring Machines

37.8 Angle-Measuring Instruments

37.9 Gages for Attributes Measuring

Case Study Measuring An Angle

Chapter 38 Nondestructive Inspection and Testing (online only)

38.1 Destructive versus Nondestructive Testing

38.2 Other Methods of Nondestructive Testing and Inspection

Advanced Topic 1 - Lean Engineering (online only)

A1.1 Introduction

A1.2 The Lean Engineer

A1.3 The Lean Production System

A1.4 Linked-Cell Manufacturing System Design Rules

A1.5 Manufacturing System Designs

A1.6 Preliminary Steps to Lean Production

A1.7 Methodology for Implementation of Lean Production

A1.8 Design Rule MT < CT

A1.9 Decouplers

A1.10 Integrating Production Control

A1.11 Integrating Inventory Control

A1.12 Lean Manufacturing Cell Design

A1.13 Machine Tool Design for Lean Manufacturing Cells

A1.14 L-CMS Strategy

Case Study Cycle Time for a Manufacturing Cell

Advanced Topic 2 - Quality Engineering (online only)

A2.1 Introduction

A2.2 Determining Process Capability

A2.3 Introduction to Statistical Quality Control

A2.4 Sampling Errors

A2.5 Gage Capability

A2.6 Just in Time/Total Quality Control

A2.7 Six Sigma

A2.8 Summary

Case Study Boring QC Chart Blunders

Advanced Topic 3 - The Enterprise (Production Systems) (online only)

A3.1 Introduction

A3.2 Axiomatic Design of Systems

A3.3 Enterprise System Design Principles

A3.4 Functional Areas in the Production System

A3.5 Human Resources (Personnel) Department


Selected References for Additional Study

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