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Desalination: Water from Water
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Table of Contents

Preface xvii Contributing Authors xix Notice from the Publisher xxxi Section I Introduction 1 1 Introduction to Desalination 3 Jane Kucera 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 How Much Water is There? 4 1.3 Finding More Fresh Water 8 1.4 Desalination: Water from Water 12 1.5 Desalination: Water from Water Outline 32 Section II Traditional Thermal Process 39 2 Thermal Desalination Processes 41 Joachim Gebel 2.1 Thermodynamic Fundamentals 41 2.2 Mass- and Energy Balances 56 2.3 Performance of Thermal Desalination Processes 115 2.4 Historical Review 139 2.5 State-of-the-Art 143 2.6 Future Prospects 150 Section III Membrane Processes 155 3 The Reverse Osmosis Process 157 Mark Wilf 3.1 The Reverse Osmosis Process 157 3.2 Permeate Recovery Rate (Conversion Ratio) 159 3.3 Net Driving Pressure 159 3.4 Salt - Water Separation in Reverse Osmosis Process 160 3.5 Water Transport 161 3.6 Salt Transport 162 3.7 Salt Passage and Salt Rejection 163 3.8 Temperature Effect on Transport Rate 164 3.9 Average Permeate Flux 165 3.10 Specifi c Water Permeability of a Membrane 165 3.11 Concentration Polarization 166 3.12 Commercial RO/NF Membrane Technology 166 3.13 Cellulose Acetate Membranes 167 3.14 Composite Polyamide Membranes 169 3.15 Membrane Module Confi gurations 171 3.16 Spiral Wound Elements 171 3.17 Spiral Wound Element Categories 174 3.18 RO System Confi guration 177 3.19 Membrane Assembly Unit 179 3.20 Concentrate Staging 180 3.21 Permeate Staging (Two Pass Systems) 182 3.22 Partial Two Pass Confi guration 183 3.23 Calculation of System Performance 185 3.24 Monitoring of Process Parameters and Equipment Performance in RO System 189 3.25 Normalization of RO System Performance 191 3.26 Membrane Elements Fouling Process 195 3.27 Performance Restoration 198 4 Nanofi ltration ? Theory and Application 205 Christopher Bellona 4.1 Introduction 206 4.2 Defining Nanofi ltration 206 4.3 History of Nanofi ltration 210 4.4 Theory 212 4.5 Application 225 4.6 Conclusions 238 5 Forward Osmosis 255 Jeffrey McCutcheon and Nhu-Ngoc Bui 5.1 The Limitations of Conventional Desalination 255 5.2 Forward Osmosis 258 5.3 The Draw Solution 262 5.4 The Membrane 265 5.5 Process Design and Desalination Applications 276 5.6 Future Directions 276 5.7 Acknowledgements 277 6 Electrodialysis Desalination 287 Hong-Joo Lee, Seung-Hyeon Moon 6.1 Principles of Electrodialysis 287 6.2 Preparation and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes 290 6.3 ED Equipment Design and Desalination Process 303 6.4 Control of Fouling in an ED Desalination Process 313 6.5 Prospects for ED Desalination 318 6.6 Concluding Remarks 323 7 Continuous Electrodeionization 327 Jonathan H. Wood, Joseph D. Gifford 7.1 Introduction 327 7.2 Development History 329 7.3 Technology Overview 329 7.4 CEDI Module Construction 332 7.5 Electroactive Media Used in CEDI Devices 339 7.6 DC Current and Voltage 341 7.7 System Design Considerations 344 7.8 Process Design Considerations 347 7.9 Operation and Maintenance 357 7.10 Applications 365 7.11 Future Trends 367 8 Membrane Distillation: Now and Future 373 Xing Yang, Anthony G. Fane, Rong Wang 8.1 Introduction 373 8.2 MD Concepts and Historic Development 375 8.3 MD Transport Mechanisms 380 8.4 Strategic Development for an Enhanced MD System 387 8.5 Energy and Cost Evaluation in MD 400 8.6 Innovations on MD Application Development 406 8.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 408 Section IV Non-Traditional Desalination Processes 425 9 Humidifi cation Dehumidifi cation Desalination 427 G. Prakash Narayan and John H. Lienhard V 9.1 Introduction 427 9.2 Thermal Design 436 9.3 Bubble Column Dehumidifi cation 456 9.4 Cost of Water Production 463 10 Freezing-Melting Desalination Process 473 Mohammad Shafi ur Rahman and Mohamed Al-Khusaibi 10.1 Introduction 473 10.2 Background or History of Freezing Melting Process 475 10.3 Principles of Freezing-Melting Process 476 10.4 Major Types of Freezing-Melting Process 477 10.5 Direct Contact Freezing 477 10.6 Direct Contact Eutectic Freezing 485 10.7 Indirect-Contact FM Process 486 10.8 Vacuum Process 489 10.9 Block FM Process 490 10.10 Applications 491 10.11 Future Challenges 493 11 Desalination by Ion Exchange 503 Bill Bornak 11.1 Introduction 504 11.2 Early Ion Exchange Desalination Processes 505 11.3 Life after RO 507 11.4 Ion Exchange Softening as Pre-Treatment 508 11.5 Softening by Ion Exchange 509 11.6 Boron-Selective Ion Exchange Resins as Post-Treatment 511 11.7 New Vessel Designs 515 11.8 New Resin Bead Design 517 11.9 Conclusion 519 12 Electrosorption of Heavy Metals with Capacitive Deionization: Water Reuse, Desalination and Resources Recovery 521 Pei Xu, Brian Elson and Jorg E Drewes 12.1 Introduction 522 12.2 Experimental Methods 527 12.3 Results and Discussions 531 12.4 Conclusions 541 Section V Renewable Energy Sources to Power Desalination 549 13 Solar Desalination 551 Mohammad Abutayeh, Chennan Li, D. Yogi Goswami and Elias K. Stefanakos 13.1 Introduction 553 13.2 Direct Solar Desalination 555 13.3 Indirect Solar Desalination 557 13.4 Non?Conventional Solar Desalination 568 13.5 Process Evaluation 572 Section VI Future Expectations 583 14 Future Expectations 585 Patrick V. Brady and Michael M. Hightower 14.1 Introduction 585 14.2 Historical Trends in Fresh Water Supply Development 586 14.3 Emerging Trends and Directions in Alternative Water Supply Development 590 14.4 Desalination for Oil and Gas 600 14.5 The Future of Desalination Technologies 611 14.6 Summary 614 References 615 Index 619

About the Author

Jane Kucera has a degree in chemical engineering fromUCLA and is a chemical engineer with 32 years experience in thearea of membrane technology. Ms. Kucera began her work withmembranes in the Seawater Laboratory at UCLA, where she receivedher master of chemical engineering degree in 1984. She worked forseven years with Bend Research, where she worked on water re-usesystems for the International Space Station. Ms. Kucera ssubsequent career path is a who s who of theworld s most respected companies involved in water treatment,including GE and Siemens. She joined the Nalco Company in 2003,where she is a senior engineer. She has approximately 40publications to her credit, including journal articles,presentations, and book chapters. She is also the author of thebestselling Reverse Osmosis, also published under theWiley-Scrivener imprint.

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