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Design of Thermal Oxidation Systems for Volatile Organic Compounds
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Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION
Combustion
History of Air Pollution
Thermal Oxidation's Wide Applicability
Air Pollutant Emissions in the United States
Industrial Sources of Air Pollution
ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS
Federal Law - State Implementation
1990 Clean Air Act Titles
VOC DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY
Operating Parameters
Destruction Efficiency
EPA Incinerability Ranking
Environmental Regulations
Halogenated Compounds
COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY
Generalized Oxidation Reactions
Highly Halogenated VOCs
Chemical Equilibrium
Dewpoint
Products of Incomplete Combustion (PICs)
Substoichiometric Combustion
Emission Correction Factors
MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE
Fundamentals
Energy Balance
Lower and Higher Heating Values
Auxiliary Fuels
Mass-to-Volume Heat Release Conversions
Mixture Heating Values
VOC Heating Value Approximations
Heat of Formation
Water Quench
Auxiliary Fuel Addition
Adiabatic Flame Temperature
Excess Air
Wet vs Dry Combustion Products
Simplified Calculational Procedures
WASTE CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION
Waste Stream Characterization
Waste Stream Variability
Minor Contaminants - Major Problems
Classifications
Liquid Waste Streams
THERMAL OXIDIZER DESIGN
Burners
Residence Chamber
Refractory Insulation
Thermal Conductivity
Heat Loss
Mixing
Plenums and Nozzles
Typical Arrangements
HEAT RECOVERY
Heat Exchangers
Waste Heat Boilers (WHB)
Heat Transfer Fluids
Water Heating
Drying
Regenerative Heat Recovery
CATALYTIC OXIDATION
Applications
Theory
Basic Equipment and Operation
Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV)
Catalyst Design
Operation
Halogens
Catalytic vs. Thermal Oxidation
Waste Gas Heating Value Effects
Catalyst Deactivation
Deactivation Indicators
Regeneration
Performance Comparison
Pilot Testing
Summary
REGENERATIVE SYSTEMS
Evolution of the RTO
Basic Concept
Thermal Efficiency
Number of Heat Sink (Regenerator) Beds
Purge System
Bed Orientation
Thermal Efficiency vs Cycle Time
Heat Sink Materials
Flow Diverter Valve
Single-Chamber Design
Auxiliary Fuel Injection
Pollutant Emissions
Effect of Waste Stream Component on Design and Operation
Exhaust Temperature Control
Waste Stream Motive Force
Regenerative Catalytic Oxidizers (RCO)
Retrofit of RTO
COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL
Characterizing/Converting NOx Emission Levels
NOx Formation Mechanisms
Thermal NOx Equilibrium/Kinetics
Parametric Affects
Fuel Type Affects
NOx Prediction
Low NOx Burners
Vitiated Air
Flue Gas Recirculation (FGR)
Fuel-Induced Recirculation (FIR)
Water/Stream Injection
Air/Fuel Staging
Staged Air Oxidation for Chemically Bound Nitrogen
Effect of Sulfur
POST-COMBUSTION NOx CONTROL
Selective Noncatalytic Reduction (SNCR)
Chemistry
Effect of Temperature
Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio
NOx Inlet Loading
Effect of Residence Time
Effect of POC Carbon Monoxide Concentration
Practical Reduction Levels
Injection Methods
Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling
Ammonia Slip
Reagent By-Products
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)
GAS SCRUBBING SYSTEMS
Wet Scrubbers
Dry Systems
Hybrid Systems
SAFETY SYSTEMS
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL)
Minimum Oxygen Concentration
Flashback Velocity
Flashback Prevention Techniques
Combustion Safeguards
Typical Natural Gas Fuel Train
Start-Up Sequence
Interlocks
Lead/Lag Temperature Control
Electrical Hazard Classifications
DESIGN CHECKLIST
Primary Objectives
Scope of Supply
Process Conditions
Design Requirements
Performance Requirements
Auxiliary Equipment
Utilities Available
Environment
Preferred Equipment/Approved Vendors
Start-Up Assistance
Spare Parts
Design Documentation
Appendix A - Incinerability Ranking
Appendix B - Table of the Elements
Appendix C - Heats of Combustion of Organic Compounds
Appendix D - Abbreviated Steam Tables
Appendix E - Explosive Limits of VOCs
References
Bibliography
Index

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