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The Development of Language

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Table of Contents

1 THE DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE: An Overview and a Preview 1 Jean Berko Gleason, Boston University An Overview of the Course of Language Development 2 Communication Development in Infancy 2 Phonological Development: Learning Sounds and Sound Patterns 2 Semantic Development: Learning the Meanings of Words 2 Putting Words Together: Morphology and Syntax in the Preschool Years 3 Language in Social Contexts: Development of Communicative Competence 3 Theoretical Approaches to Language Acquisition 4 Variation in Language Development: Implications for Research and Theory 4 Atypical Language Development 5 Language and Literacy in the School Years 5 Bilingual Language Development 6 The Structure of Language: Learning the System 6 Competence and Performance 6 Phonology 7 Morphology 7 Syntax 8 Semantics 8 The Social Rules for Language Use 9 The Biological Bases of Language 9 Animal Communication Systems 9 The Biological Base: Humans, Ancient and Modern 14 The Study of Language Development 18 Interest in Language Acquisition in Ancient Times 18 Studies in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 18 Research in the Modern Era 19 Research Methods 20 Childes 23 Summary 23 Suggested Projects 25 2 COMMUNICATION DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY 26 Rochelle S. Newman, University of Maryland, College Park Perceptual "Tuning" to Speech 27 Segmentation 28 Statistical Learning 29 Early Communicative Attempts 30 The Expression of Communicative Intent before Speech 31 Characteristics of Intentional Communication 31 The Forms and Functions of Early Communicative Behaviors 32 The Assessment of Communicative Intent 33 The Social Context of the Preverbal Infant 34 The Sound of the Caregiver's Speech: "Listen to Me!" 35 The Conversational Nature of the Caregiver's Speech: "Talk to Me!" 36 Contexts for the Emergence of Object Reference: "Look at That!" 38 Talk in Structured Situations: "Here's What We Say" 39 First Words 40 Enhancing Early Development: A Summary 40 When Learning to Communicate Is Difficult 41 Summary 43 Suggested Projects 44 3 PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: Learning Sounds and Sound Patterns 45 Carol Stoel-Gammon, University of Washington Lise Menn, University of Colorado English Speech Sounds and Sound Patterns 45 IPA Symbols for Consonants 45 Classifying Consonants 46 Place of Articulation 47 Manner of Articulation 47 Voicing 48 Classifying Vowels 48 Contrast: The Phoneme 49 Phonotactics: Constraints on Possible Words 49 Prosodic Aspects of Speech: Stress and Intonation Contour 49 Production: The Prelinguistic Period 49 Sounds of Babbling 50 The Relationship between Babbling and Speech 51 Learning to Make Words 51 The Beginning of Phonological Development: Protowords 51 Words and Sounds: Vocabulary and Phonology Interact 52 A Cognitive Approach to the Acquisition of Phonology 53 Learning to Pronounce 54 How Real Children Pronounce Words 54 How to Describe Regularity in Children's Renditions of Adult Words 55 Rules, Templates, and Strategies 58 Phonological Development: Norms and Measures 60 Phonetic Inventories of Young Children 60 Accuracy of Production 61 Ages and Stages of Acquisition 62 When Phonological Development Is Difficult 63 Phonological Disorders of Unknown Etiology 63 Articulation and Phonological Disorders Associated with Identifiable Causes 64 Effects of a Phonological/Articulation Disorder 66 The Acquisition of English Morphophonology 66 Parents' Role in Phonological Development 67 Phonological Awareness and Reading Readiness 67 Language Variation in the United States: Languages, Dialects, and Speech Styles 67 Spanish in the United States 68 Consonants of (Mexican) Spanish, by Manner Class 69 Regional and Ethnic Dialectal Differences in English 70 Pronunciation in Conversational Speech 71 Summary 72 Child Phonology Problems 73 Suggested Projects 75 Suggested Websites 76 4 SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT: Learning the Meanings of Words 77 Paola Uccelli, Harvard Graduate School of Education Meredith L. Rowe, Harvard Graduate School of Education Barbara Alexander Pan, Harvard Graduate School of Education The Relations between Words and Their Referents 78 Mental Images 79 Theoretical Perspectives on Semantic Development 80 Learning Theory 80 Developmental Theories 81 Fast Mapping 82 The Study of Early Semantic Development 83 What Are Early Words Like? 84 Unconventional Word/Meaning Mappings 87 Invented Words 88 Differences between Comprehension and Production 89 How Adult Speech Influences Children's Semantic Development 89 Individual Differences in Vocabulary Development: Home and School Factors 92 Vocabulary Development and Assessment in Bilingual Children 93 Later Semantic Development 95 Connections between Research and Practice 96 Metalinguistic Development 97 Word-Concept Awareness 98 Word-Meaning Awareness: Humor, Metaphor, and Irony 98 Word Definitions 100 When Learning New Words Is Difficult 100 A Life-Long Enterprise 102 Summary 102 Suggested Projects 103 5 PUTTING WORDS TOGETHER: Comprehension and Production of Morphology and Syntax in the Preschool Years 104 Andrea Zukowski, University of Maryland, College Park Children's Early Comprehension of Syntax 105 Studying Syntactic Development 106 Entering the Complex Linguistic System 107 Two-Word Utterances 108 Telegraphic Speech 109 Semantic Relations 110 Early Grammar 110 The Nature of Syntactic Rules 111 Measuring Syntactic Growth 116 Developing Grammatical Morphemes 119 Brown's 14 Morphemes 119 Order of Acquisition 120 Optional Infinitives 121 Productivity of Children's Morphology 122 Crosslinguistic Data 123 Different Sentence Modalities 124 Negatives 124 Questions 125 Later Developments in Preschoolers 127 Passives 127 Coordinations 129 Relative Clauses 129 Beyond the Preschool Years 131 Anaphora 131 Interpreting "Empty" Subjects in Infinitive Clauses 132 Knowledge versus Processing 132 Summary 134 Suggested Projects 134 6 LANGUAGE IN SOCIAL CONTEXTS: Development of Communicative Competence 137 Judith Becker Bryant, University of South Florida Language in Social Contexts 138 Non-egocentric Language 139 Requests 140 Conversational Skills 141 Choices among Language Varieties 143 The Challenge of Acquiring Communicative Competence 146 How Do Children Acquire Communicative Competence? 147 Family Influences 147 Schools' and Peers' Influence 151 Children's Cognitions and Efforts to Achieve Communicative Competence 152 Why Does Communicative Competence Matter? 155 Summary 157 Suggested Projects 157 7 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE ACQUISITION 158 John N. Bohannon III, Butler University John D. Bonvillian, University of Virginia Distinguishing Features of Theoretical Approaches 158 Structuralism versus Functionalism 159 Competence versus Performance 159 Nativism versus Empiricism 159 Evaluating Research Methods 160 Classic Behavioral Approaches 160 General Assumptions 160 Behavioral Language Learning 161 Evaluation of the Behavioral Approaches 163 Linguistic Approaches 164 General Assumptions 164 LAD and Development 166 Evaluation of the Linguistic Approaches 167 Interactionist Approaches 172 General Assumptions 172 Cognitive Approaches: Piaget's Theory and Information-Processing Models 172 Information-Processing Approach 176 Social Interaction Approach 180 Gestural and Usage-Based Approach 187 Gestural and Sign Origins 187 Usage-Based Theory 190 Evaluation of Gestural and Usage-Based Theory 191 Summary 192 Suggested Projects 194 8 VARIATION IN LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: Implications for Research and Theory 196 Beverly A. Goldfield, Rhode Island College Catherine E. Snow, Harvard Graduate School of Education Ingrid A. Willenberg, Australian Catholic University The History of Variation in Child Language Research 197 Variation in Early Words 198 Segmenting the Speech Stream 199 Variation in Early Sentences 201 Stability of Style across Words and Sentences 202 Sources of Variation 204 Child Factors 204 Input Factors 205 Socioeconomic Status 206 Linguistic Factors 208 Bilingual Language Learners 209 Context: The Interaction of Child, Caregiver, and Language 211 Implications of Variation for Theories of Language Acquisition 212 Summary 213 Suggested Projects 214 9 ATYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 215 Nan Bernstein Ratner, University of Maryland, College Park What Causes Atypical Language Development? 216 Communicative Development and Severe Hearing Impairment 217 Language Development 219 Lexical Development 220 Grammatical Development 220 Reading and Writing Skills 220 Pragmatic Skills 221 Educational Approaches to the Development of Language in Children Who Are Deaf 221 Acquisition of ASL as a First Language 223 Teaching Sign Language to Typically Developing and Developmentally Delayed Babies with Typical Hearing Skills 223 Sign Language and the Brain 224 Are You at Risk for Hearing Impairment? 224 Intellectual Disability and Communicative Development 224 Cognitive Disability and the Language-Acquisition Process 224 Language Development 227 Teaching Language to Children with Intellectual Disability 229 Autism Spectrum Disorder 230 General Characteristics 230 Causation 232 Specific Social and Communicative Weaknesses in Autism Spectrum Disorder 233 Language 234 Echolalia 234 Treatment 235 Specific Language Impairment 239 General Identity and Prevalence 239 Language Profiles of Children with Specific Language Impairment 239 Lexicon 240 Morphosyntax 241 Pragmatics 243 Concomitant Problems 244 Causative Explanations 244 Models of SLI 245 Is SLI Universal? 247 Language Intervention with Children Who Are Specifically Language Impaired 247 Atypical Speech Development 250 Childhood Stuttering 251 Evaluation of Suspected Speech and Language Disorders in Children 252 Summary 253 Suggested Projects 255 10 LANGUAGE AND LITERACY IN THE SCHOOL YEARS 257 Gigliana Melzi, New York University Adina R. Schick, New York University Learning to Share Oral Stories 259 Sharing Oral Stories at Home 259 Oral Stories across Cultures and in Different Languages 263 Sharing Oral Stories in the Classroom 264 Playing with Language and Using Verbal Humor 266 Beyond Language Play: Types of Metalinguistic Knowledge 267 Developing Metalinguistic Awareness in Two Languages 269 Learning to Read 270 Engaging with Print at Home and in the Community 270 Reading Components 273 Reading Development 274 Approaches to Reading Instruction 275 Learning to Read in a Second Language 277 When Learning to Read Is Difficult 277 Learning to Write 279 Development of Spelling 279 Developing Writing Skills across Genres 280 Learning to Write in a Second Language 282 Summary 283 Suggested Projects 283 11 BILINGUAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 285 L. Quentin Dixon, Texas A&M University Jing Zhao, Sun Yat-sen University/Harvard Graduate School of Education Perspectives on Bilingual Language Development 287 The Child Language Perspective: Input and Interaction as Factors in Bilingual Acquisition 287 The Linguistic Perspective 287 The Sociocultural Perspective 289 The Psycholinguistic Perspective 290 Key Questions in Bilingual Language Development 290 Q1: What Are the Best Conditions for Acquiring Two Languages? 290 Q2: Are You Ever Too Old to Learn a Second Language? 293 Q3: Why Are Some People Better at Learning a New Language than Others? 294 Q4: How Much Does Bilingual Development Resemble Monolingual Development? 296 Q5: Is It Possible to Become a Perfect Bilingual? 299 Q6: Is Bilingualism an Advantage or Disadvantage? 301 When Learning a Second Language Is Difficult 304 Summary 305 Suggested Projects 306 References 308 Glossary 369 Name Index 383 Subject Index 398

About the Author

Jean Berko Gleason, PhD. is one of the world's leading experts on children's language and one of the founding mothers of the field of psycholinguistics. She created the famous "Wug Test", which reveals how children learn the rules of language, such as how to make singular words plural. Her current work investigates parents' speech and the interactive nature of language acquisition. She is the author of leading textbooks in her field and many influential studies of aphasia, language development, gender differences in language, and language in the Roma community in Hungary. Dr. Berko Gleason is Professor Emerita in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Boston University. A member of the Academy of Aphasia, she is past president of the International Association for the Study of Child Language and of the Gypsy Lore Society, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Her classic work in child language development is frequently cited in the professional literature and featured in the popular media. She is a featured scientist in the award-winning PBS online Nova Science Now series The Secret Life of Scientists. Nan Bernstein Ratner, Ed.D., C.C.C. is Professor, Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, University of Maryland at College Park and participating faculty in the Maryland Language Sciences Center and Program in Neuroscience and Cognitive Neuroscience, and a Board-Recognized Specialist in Child Language and Language Disorders. Dr. Bernstein Ratner is the editor of numerous volumes, and author of numerous chapters and articles addressing language acquisition and fluency in children. Many of her research reports can be found in the Journal of Speech and Hearing Research and other major journals, with chapters in major texts on child speech and language development. With Jean Berko Gleason, Dr. Bernstein Ratner is the author of the text Psycholinguistics as well as prior editions of The Development of Language. In 2014, Dr. Bernstein Ratner received the Honors of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association; she was made a Psychology Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 2015.

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