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Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii 1 Basic Concepts of Digital Terrestrial Television Transmission System 1 1.1 Introduction and Historic Review 1 1.1.1 Birth and Development of Television Black-and-White TV Era 1 1.1.2 Analog Color TV Era 2 1.1.3 Digital TV Era 3 1.2 Major International and Regional DTV Organizations 7 1.2.1 International DTV Broadcasting Standards 7 1.2.2 Related International and Regional Organizations 9 1.3 Composition of DTV System 11 1.3.1 Constitution of DTV System 11 1.3.2 Functional Layers of DTV 14 1.4 Compression Layer and Multiplexing Layer 19 1.4.1 Image Format 19 1.4.2 Compression Modes for DTV Signal 19 1.4.3 MPEG-2 for Video Compression 20 1.4.4 Intraframe Coding 21 1.4.5 Interframe Coding Method 23 1.4.6 Audio Compression 24 1.4.7 MPEG-2 Coding 25 1.4.8 MPEG-2 Multiplexing 26 1.4.9 Transport Stream 26 1.5 Current Deployment of DTTB Systems 29 1.5.1 Developments of ATSC DVB-T and ISDB-T 30 1.5.2 Development and Deployment of DTMB System 33 1.5.3 Network Convergence with DTTB Systems 35 1.6 Summary 37 References 37 2 Channel Characteristics of Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Systems 39 2.1 Introduction 39 2.2 Mathematical Models of Wireless Radio Channel 42 2.2.1 Statistical Model of Channel Impulse Response 42 2.2.2 Channel Impulse Response with Deterministic Parameters 44 2.3 Property of Wireless Fading Channel Parameters 46 2.3.1 Multipath Delay Spread and Frequency-Selective Fading 46 2.3.2 Doppler Shift and Time-Selective Fading 50 2.3.3 Time- and Frequency-Selective Fading of Wireless Radio Channel 54 2.4 Commonly Used Statistical Models for Fading Channel 55 2.4.1 Rayleigh Fading Model 55 2.4.2 Ricean Fading Model 56 2.5 DTTB Channel Model 58 2.5.1 Typical DTTB Channel Model 58 2.5.2 Single-Frequency Network of Channel Model for DTTB Systems 63 2.6 Summary 67 References 68 3 Channel Coding for DTTB System 69 3.1 Channel Capacity and Shannon's Channel Coding Theorem 69 3.2 Error Control and Classification of Channel Coding 73 3.3 Linear Block Code 75 3.3.1 Basic Concept of Linear Block Code 75 3.3.2 BCH Code 78 3.3.3 Reed-Solomon Code 79 3.4 Convolutional Codes 80 3.4.1 Construction and Description of Convolutional Codes 81 3.4.2 Distance Property and Decoding of Convolutional Codes 84 3.5 Interleaving 87 3.5.1 Block Interleaving 87 3.5.2 Convolutional Interleaving 88 3.6 Concatenation Codes 89 3.7 Parallel Codes 92 3.7.1 Product Codes 92 3.7.2 Turbo Codes and Iterative Decoding 94 3.8 Trellis Coding and Modulation 100 3.8.1 Mapping by Set Partition of TCM Codes 100 3.8.2 Code Construction and Basic Principles of TCM Codes 101 3.9 Low-Density Parity-Check Code 103 3.9.1 Basic Concept of LDPC Codes 104 3.9.2 Decoding Algorithms of LDPC Codes 106 3.10 Channel Coding Adopted by Different DTV Broadcasting Standards 108 3.11 Summary 110 References 110 4 Modulation Technologies for DTTB System 113 4.1 Introduction 113 4.2 Digital Modulation 114 4.2.1 Signal Space and Its Representation 114 4.2.2 Typical Digital Modulations 117 4.2.3 The Power Spectrum of Modulated Signal 124 4.2.4 Demodulation and Performance Evaluation 129 4.2.5 Variations of Digital Modulations 137 4.3 Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation 140 4.3.1 BICM System Model 140 4.3.2 BICM Design and Performance Evaluation 141 4.3.3 BICM-ID System Model 144 4.3.4 BICM-ID with Doping: Design and Performance Evaluation 145 4.3.5 BICM-ID Design Based on EXIT Charts 146 4.3.6 BICM-ID with LDPC Coding 147 4.4 Multicarrier Modulation 148 4.4.1 Principle of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 149 4.4.2 Implementation of OFDMwith Discrete Fourier Transform 151 4.4.3 Guard Interval and Cyclic Prefix of OFDM 152 4.4.4 Frequency Domain Property 156 4.4.5 General Comparison between OFDM and Single-Carrier Modulation System 157 4.5 Design Considerations of DTTB Modulation 159 4.5.1 Modulation Scheme Determination 159 4.5.2 Modulation Schemes in Typical DTTB Standards 160 4.6 Summary 160 References 161 5 First-Generation DTTB Standards 163 5.1 General Introduction 163 5.1.1 ATSC Standard 163 5.1.2 DVB-T Standard 164 5.1.3 ISDB-T Standard 164 5.1.4 DTMB Standard 164 5.2 Introduction to ATSC Standard 164 5.2.1 Scrambler 166 5.2.2 RS Encoding and Data Interleaving 167 5.2.3 TCM Encoder and Interleaver 168 5.2.4 Multiplexing 169 5.2.5 Pilot Insertion and VSB Modulation 170 5.3 Introduction to DVB-T Standard 171 5.3.1 Channel Coding 173 5.3.2 Modulation 176 5.4 Introduction to ISDB-T Standard 180 5.4.1 Multiplexing 184 5.4.2 Channel Coding 185 5.4.3 Constellation Mapping and Modulation 186 5.4.4 TMCC Information 194 5.5 Introduction to DTMB Standard 195 5.5.1 Major System Parameters 197 5.5.2 Input Data Format 198 5.5.3 Scrambler 198 5.5.4 FEC Coding 198 5.5.5 Constellation Mapping 201 5.5.6 Interleaving 203 5.5.7 System Information 205 5.5.8 Signal Frame Structure 206 5.5.9 Frame Header (FH) 207 5.5.10 Frame Body Data Processing 209 5.5.11 Baseband Signal Post Processing 210 5.5.12 RF Output Interface 210 5.5.13 System Payload Data Throughput 213 5.6 Summary 213 References 213 6 Second-Generation DTTB Standards 215 6.1 Introduction to Second-Generation Digital Video Broadcasting 215 6.1.1 System Structure 217 6.1.2 Input Processing 217 6.1.3 Bit-Interleaved Coding and Modulation 220 6.1.4 Frame Builder 226 6.1.5 OFDM Symbol Generation 228 6.2 Introduction to DTMB-A System 235 6.2.1 System Architecture 235 6.2.2 Interface and Data Preprocessing 236 6.2.3 Scrambling Interleaving and Modulation 238 6.2.4 Superframe Structure 245 6.2.5 Signal Frame 247 6.2.6 Synchronization Channel 248 6.2.7 Transmit Diversity 251 6.2.8 Baseband Postprocessing 252 6.2.9 RF Signal 252 6.2.10 Baseband Signal Spectrum Characteristics and Spectrum Mask 252 6.2.11 System Payload Data Rate 253 6.3 Summary 254 References 254 7 Design and Implementation of DTV Receiver 255 7.1 Introduction 255 7.2 Mathematical Principles 259 7.2.1 Channel Synchronization 259 7.2.2 Channel Estimation 262 7.3 Single-Carrier Systems 269 7.3.1 Timing Synchronization 269 7.3.2 Carrier Synchronization 272 7.3.3 Channel Estimation and Equalization 276 7.4 Multicarrier Systems 280 7.4.1 Timing Synchronization 280 7.4.2 Carrier Synchronization 280 7.4.3 Channel Estimation/Equalization for OFDM System 285 7.5 Introduction to DTMB Inner Receiver 288 7.5.1 Frame Synchronization 289 7.5.2 Carrier Synchronization 291 7.5.3 Channel Estimation and Equalization 292 7.6 Summary 297 References 297 8 Network Planning for DTTB Systems 299 8.1 Introduction 299 8.2 Basic Concepts 300 8.2.1 Carrier-to-Noise Ratio 300 8.2.2 Minimal Field Strength 300 8.2.3 Cliff Effect 301 8.2.4 Location Coverage Probability 301 8.2.5 Protection Ratio 302 8.3 Analog and Digital TV Broadcasting 303 8.3.1 Comparison between Analog and Digital Transmissions 303 8.3.2 Frequency Planning for Terrestrial Broadcasting 303 8.3.3 Simulcast of Digital and Analog TV 304 8.3.4 Frequency Utilization of Terrestrial Broadcasting 305 8.4 Multiple-Frequency and Single-Frequency Networks 306 8.4.1 Introduction to MFN 306 8.4.2 Introduction to SFN 307 8.4.3 Classification of SFNs 308 8.4.4 Interference Analysis of SFN 309 8.4.5 Synchronization in SFN 310 8.4.6 Network Gain in SFN 312 8.4.7 Application of SFN 314 8.5 Transmission System of DTTB 314 8.5.1 DTTB Transmitter System 316 8.5.2 DTTB Exciter 318 8.5.3 Power Amplifier 321 8.5.4 Multiplexer 322 8.5.5 Transmitting Antenna 325 8.6 Signal Reception of DTTB 327 8.6.1 Main Impact Factors of Physical DTTB Channel 327 8.6.2 Fixed Reception 328 8.6.3 Portable Reception 328 8.6.4 Mobile Reception 329 8.7 Diversity Techniques 329 8.7.1 Various Diversity Schemes 329 8.7.2 Design Principles of Diversity Schemes for DTTB System 330 8.7.3 Transmit Diversity Technique 331 8.7.4 Receiving Diversity 337 8.8 Summary 343 References 343 9 Performance Measurement on DTTB Systems 345 9.1 Introduction 345 9.2 Measurement Description 345 9.2.1 BER Measurement and Decision Threshold 346 9.2.2 C/N Measurement 350 9.2.3 Input Signal Level to the Receiver 351 9.2.4 Interface Parameters 351 9.2.5 Multipath Models 351 9.2.6 Laboratory Test 351 9.3 Laboratory Test Plan Using DTMB System as Example 354 9.3.1 Laboratory Test Platform 354 9.3.2 Interface Setup of Test Platform 355 9.3.3 C/N Threshold under Gaussian Channel 355 9.3.4 Minimum Reception Level in Gaussian Channel 357 9.3.5 Maximum Reception Level 359 9.3.6 C/N Threshold in Ricean Channel 360 9.3.7 C/N Threshold in Rayleigh Channel 361 9.3.8 Maximum Doppler Frequency Shift in Dynamic Multipath Channel 362 9.3.9 Maximum Delay Spread in Two-Path Channel with 0-dB Echo 364 9.3.10 C/N Threshold in Two-Path Channel with 0-dB Echo 365 9.3.11 Maximum Pulse Width of Impulse Noise Interference 366 9.3.12 C/I Measurement with Cochannel and Adjacent-Channel Analog TV Signal Interference 368 9.3.13 C/I Measurement with Cochannel and Adjacent-Channel DTV Signal Interference 371 9.3.14 C/I Measurement with Single-Tone Interference 372 9.3.15 Antiphase Noise Measurement 375 9.4 Field Test Plan 376 9.4.1 Field Test 376 9.4.2 Objectives of Field Test 377 9.4.3 Testing Signal 379 9.4.4 Antenna 379 9.4.5 Measurement Time 380 9.4.6 Channel Characteristic Recoding 381 9.4.7 Test Location 381 9.4.8 Test Calibration 381 9.4.9 Records and Documents 381 9.4.10 Test: Instruments and Auxiliary Equipment 382 9.4.11 Coverage Test Procedure 383 9.4.12 Service Test Procedures 386 9.4.13 Measurement Guideline of Field Test for DTTB System 389 9.4.14 Field Test Platform 390 9.4.15 Procedure for Fixed Reception Test 390 9.4.16 Mobile Test 391 9.5 Summary 392 References 392 10 Digital Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting Systems 393 10.1 Introduction 393 10.2 DVB-H System 395 10.2.1 Block Diagram of DVB-H System 396 10.2.2 Technical Features of DVB-H System 397 10.3 ATSC-M/H System 402 10.3.1 Frame Structure of ATSC-M/H System 403 10.3.2 ATSC-M/H System Block Diagram 403 10.3.3 Frame Encoding of ATSC-M/H System 405 10.3.4 Block Processor of ATSC-M/H System 406 10.3.5 ATSC-M/H Trellis Encoder 406 10.4 CMMB System 408 10.4.1 Frame Structure of CMMB System 408 10.4.2 Channel Coding of CMMB System 408 10.4.3 CMMB Byte Interleaving 409 10.4.4 Modulation Scheme of CMMB System 411 10.4.5 Payload Data Rate of CMMB System 411 10.5 DVB-NGH 413 10.5.1 Alamouti Scheme 415 10.5.2 eSFN Scheme 416 10.5.3 eSM-PH Scheme 419 10.5.4 Hybrid System 422 10.6 Summary 424 References 426 Index 427

About the Author

Jian Song is a Professor and Director of DTV Technology R&D Center at Tsinghua University (China). He is the associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, an administrative committee member of Broadcast Technology Society, and the vice chair of Working Party 6A of International Telecommunication Union. Dr. Song leads the efforts of promoting Chinese DTMB standard worldwide. Zhixing Yang is a Professor at Tsinghua University (China) and Deputy Director of the State Key Laboratory on Microwave and Digital Communications. Professor Yang led the research and development efforts for Chinese DTMB Standard. Jun Wang is an Associate Professor at Tsinghua University (China), and is actively involved in the technical activities for Chinese DTMB Standard as the standard drafting committee member selected by the Standardization Administration of China.

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