1 Framework for Practice with Diverse and Oppressed Clients George A. Appleby Theory for Practice 5 Ecological Framework for Practice 6 Diversity and Strengths Perspective 9 Value Base for Practice 10 Assessment and Intervention Framework 10Conclusion 13 References 14 2 Culture, Social Class, and Social Identity Development George A. Appleby Culture 18 Norms 18 Values 20 Language and Culture 21 Cultural Change 23 Subcultures 25Social Class 26 Education and Social Class 29 Social Identity Development 30 Social Categorization 30Social Comparison 31 Person-in-Environment Classification System 32 Conclusion 34 References 35 3 Ethnic Identity Development 36 Elizabeth Rodriguez-Keyes Western Models of Identity Development 36 Erik Erikson 36 James Marcia 38 Critique of Western Psychological Theories 40Ethnic Identity 41 References 45 4 Risk and Resilience: Impact of Early Trauma on Psychological and Physiological Functioning 47 Tammy Moscrip An Ecological Framework: The Person-in-Environment System 47 Psychological and Physiological Impacts of Early Trauma 48 The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study 49 The Stress Response: How Can Stress Translate into Illness? 51 Neurobiology of Early Trauma: Understanding the Mind-Body Connection 52 Coping Mechanisms and Resilience 55 Assessing the Brain-Behavior Connection: Implications for Client Resiliency 57 Conclusion 57 References 59 5 Dynamics of Oppression and Discrimination 61 George A. Appleby Oppression and Power 61 Sexual Oppression 64 Racial Oppression 66 Discrimination 66Diversity 67 Identity 69 Stigma and Stigma Management 70 Effects of Stigmatization 71Conclusion 75 References 76 6 African-Americans: Consequences of Discrimination 78 Esther Howe and Julia Hamilton The African American Community: A Socioeconomic Profile 79 Race and Developmental Process 79 African American Family Values and Patterns 81 The Role of the African American Churches 83 Educational Functioning and Achievement 83 Effects of Interethnic Interaction 84 Ethnicity within the African American Community 84 Assessment and the Social Worker's Role 85 Case Study 86 Conclusion 88 References 88 7 Women and Sexist Oppression 90 Barbara Worden Case Study 92 The PIE Classification System for Problems in Social Functioning 93 PIE Assessment of Jean 94 The Empowerment Framework 95 Male Models of Structured Reality 96 Madness as a Feminist Construct 98Macro-Analysis: Feminist Epistemologies and the Nature of Knowledge Making 99 What Do We Mean by the Oppression of Women? 102Feminization of Poverty 103 Conclusion 105 Helpful Websites 105 References 106 8 A Multi-diversity Perspective on Latinos: Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 108 Edgar Colon Who is the Latino/Latina? 108 Socio-demographic Profile 110 Racial and Ethnic Identity 110 Poverty and Social Status 110 Labor Force Participation 111 Latino Immigration to the United States 111 Mexicans 111 Puerto Ricans 112 Cubans 112 Central and South Americans 113 Dominicans 113 Latino Normative and Cultural Values 114 Respect, Dignity, and Personalism 114 Help Seeking Behaviors 115 Latino Family 115 Gender Roles 116 Family Support System 116 A PIE Perspective of Working with Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 117 Assessing for Social Functioning Problems 117 Assessing for Mental Health Problems 118 Case Illustration 121 Factor I: Problems in Social Functioning 121 Factor II: Problems in the Environment 121 Conclusion 122 References 122 9 Native Americans: Oppression and Social Work Practice 126 Jack Paul Gesino History of Racism 127 Present Day: Social and Health Problems 129 Mental Health 130 Family, Beliefs, and Rituals 131 Values and Traditions 132 Spiritual Traditions of Native Americans 133 Practice Implications 133 Intervention 135 The PIE System and Native Americans 136 Case Study 137 PIE Assessment of Mary 138 Conclusion 141 References 142 10 Asian Americans: Ethnocentrism and Discrimination 145 Michie N. Hesselbrock Immigration and Resettlement Patterns and Consequences 147 Chinese 147 Japanese 148 Filipinos 149 Koreans and Asian Indians 150 Southeast Asians 150 Norms, Beliefs, and Cultural Stereotypes 151 Common Beliefs 152Mental Health Problems and Treatment Seeking 155 Implications for Social Work Practice 156 Summary 157 Case Study 158 PIE Assessment of Mr.Yee 158Conclusion 159 References 159 11 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People Confront Heterocentrism, Heterosexism, and Homophobia 162 George A. Appleby History 166 Historical Oppression in Context 170 Definitions 170 The Roots of Oppression 173 Gender Ideology 173 Heterosexual Privilege 174 Religion 175 Psychiatry/Psychology 176 Law and Policy 177 Violence and Gay Bashing 178Internalized Homophobia 180 Conclusion 181 References 182 12 Ableism: Social Work Practice with Physically Disabled Individuals 186 P. Minou Michilin and Silvia Juarez-Marazzo Historical Overview 188 Bioethics 190 The Nature of Disability 191 Functional Disability versus Socially Imposed Disability 191 Early Age of Onset 193 Later Age of Onset 196Vulnerabilities and Risk Factors versus Resilience and Protective Factors 197 Person-in-Environment Assessment 201 Case Study 201 The Social Worker's Role 202 Intervention 203Conclusion 203 References 204 13 Ableism: Mentally and Emotionally Challenged People 206 Jaak Rakfeldt Theoretical Framework 207 Mental Disorders as Social Roles 207 Self-Concept 212 Social Roles/Relationships and Psychiatric Disability 215Case Study 217 Theories of Practice: Person-in-Environment Analysis 219 PIE Assessment of Steve 220Conclusion 220 References 221 14 Social Work Practice with Immigrants 224 Silvia Juarez-Marazzo The Contributions of Social Work to Immigration 224 Demographics 225 The Outsider 227 The Circumstances 228 Acculturation versus Adaptation: A Framework 229 PIE Analysis 230 Case Study 1 231 PIE Analysis of Alicia 232Case Study 2 233 PIE Analysis of Muny 234Conclusion 235 References 236 15 Lookism: Bias Based on Appearance 237 Esther Howe Beauty Is and Beauty Does 238 Appearance Discrimination in the Workplace 239 Consequences of Appearance Discrimination on a Personal Level 240 The Law 240 Impact of Medical Advances on Appearance Discrimination 242 Psychosocial Consequences for the Individual 242 Case Study 242 PIE Assessment of Patty 243Conclusion 245 References 246 16 The "Ghetto Fabulous" Persona Among African American and Latino Youth: Issues of Social Oppression and Social Functioning 247 Edgar Colon, Luis Rodriguez, and Roberto Padilla Social Functioning Issues in Inner City Communities 250 A Person in Environment for Social Work Practice with African American and Latino Urban Youth 252 Case Study 254 Conclusion 256 References 257 17 Affirmative Practice with People Who Are Culturally Diverse and Oppressed 259 Edgar Colon, George A. Appleby, and Julia Hamilton A Paradigm for Affirmative Practice 259 Culture and Diversity: A Transactional View 259 The Power of Personal Experience 260 Diversity and Worldviews 260 Interrelatedness and Interconnectedness of Human Experience 262 Interlocking Systems of Oppression 263 Practice Implications: Women 263 Practice Implications: Gays and Lesbians 264 Practice Implications: Latinos 266 Practice Implications: African Americans 267 Practice Implications: Native Americans 268 Practice Implications: The Chronically Mentally Ill and the Physically Challenged 268 Micro Systems Intervention 269 Mezzo Intervention 271 Cultural Competence and the Profession 272 Macro Intervention 272Conclusion 273 References 274 Appendix A: PIE Assessment Forms for Factors I and II
Dr. Edgar Colon is a Professor of Social Work at Southern Connecticut State University. Dr. Colon received an Master of Science in Social Welfare from Columbia University and a Doctorate in Social Welfare from the City University of New York Graduate Center at the Hunter College School of Social Work. He has served on Faculty of Social Work of several New York City colleges and universities which include Fordham University, Hunter College and The State University of New York at Stony Brook, to name a few. Dr. Colon brings to teaching a total of twenty-one years teaching and practice experience, in the areas of social welfare management, social policy, human behavior, social oppression and diversity issues, and clinical practice with substance abuse problems. His professional areas of scholarly interest include:health and mental health with particular focus on clinical practice, program design, planning and organization development in ethnic minority communities.