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Diversity, Oppression, and Social Functioning

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Using the "Person-In-Environment" (PIE) theoretical framework, this diversity practice text teaches students how to think about their personal reactions and assumptions about diversity and what constitutes cultural competent "assessment" and "intervention" when working with a broad range of diverse populations. The diverse populations presented in the text are described within an ecological, strengths perspective. The authors' thesis is that, in order to work effectively with diverse populations, it is necessary to take into consideration the complex dynamics of social functioning and social oppression. The "Person-In-Environment" theoretical framework provides a basis for analysis of the social, economic, and political reality of these diverse populations. The text presents an affirmative practice approach and builds on the available diversity practice literature. This text can be used in diversity practice courses, courses on working with oppressed populations, and other practice courses (such as advanced practice) that focus on diversity issues.
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Table of Contents

1 Framework for Practice with Diverse and Oppressed ClientsGeorge A. ApplebyTheory for Practice 5Ecological Framework for Practice 6Diversity and Strengths Perspective 9Value Base for Practice 10Assessment and Intervention Framework 10Conclusion 13References 142 Culture, Social Class, and Social Identity DevelopmentGeorge A. ApplebyCulture 18Norms 18Values 20Language and Culture 21Cultural Change 23Subcultures 25Social Class 26Education and Social Class 29Social Identity Development 30Social Categorization 30Social Comparison 31Person-in-Environment Classification System 32Conclusion 34References 353 Ethnic Identity Development 36Elizabeth Rodriguez-KeyesWestern Models of Identity Development 36Erik Erikson 36James Marcia 38Critique of Western Psychological Theories 40Ethnic Identity 41References 454 Risk and Resilience: Impact of Early Trauma on Psychological and Physiological Functioning 47Tammy MoscripAn Ecological Framework: The Person-in-Environment System 47Psychological and Physiological Impacts of Early Trauma 48The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study 49The Stress Response: How Can Stress Translate into Illness? 51Neurobiology of Early Trauma: Understanding the Mind-Body Connection 52Coping Mechanisms and Resilience 55Assessing the Brain-Behavior Connection: Implications for Client Resiliency 57Conclusion 57References 595 Dynamics of Oppression and Discrimination 61George A. ApplebyOppression and Power 61Sexual Oppression 64Racial Oppression 66Discrimination 66Diversity 67Identity 69Stigma and Stigma Management 70Effects of Stigmatization 71Conclusion 75References 766 African-Americans: Consequences of Discrimination 78Esther Howe and Julia HamiltonThe African American Community: A Socioeconomic Profile 79Race and Developmental Process 79African American Family Values and Patterns 81The Role of the African American Churches 83Educational Functioning and Achievement 83Effects of Interethnic Interaction 84Ethnicity within the African American Community 84Assessment and the Social Worker's Role 85Case Study 86Conclusion 88References 887 Women and Sexist Oppression 90Barbara WordenCase Study 92The PIE Classification System for Problems in Social Functioning 93PIE Assessment of Jean 94The Empowerment Framework 95Male Models of Structured Reality 96Madness as a Feminist Construct 98Macro-Analysis: Feminist Epistemologies and the Nature of Knowledge Making 99What Do We Mean by the Oppression of Women? 102Feminization of Poverty 103Conclusion 105Helpful Websites 105References 1068 A Multi-diversity Perspective on Latinos: Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 108Edgar ColonWho is the Latino/Latina? 108Socio-demographic Profile 110Racial and Ethnic Identity 110Poverty and Social Status 110Labor Force Participation 111Latino Immigration to the United States 111Mexicans 111Puerto Ricans 112Cubans 112Central and South Americans 113Dominicans 113Latino Normative and Cultural Values 114Respect, Dignity, and Personalism 114Help Seeking Behaviors 115Latino Family 115Gender Roles 116Family Support System 116A PIE Perspective of Working with Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 117Assessing for Social Functioning Problems 117Assessing for Mental Health Problems 118Case Illustration 121Factor I: Problems in Social Functioning 121Factor II: Problems in the Environment 121Conclusion 122References 1229 Native Americans: Oppression and Social Work Practice 126Jack Paul GesinoHistory of Racism 127Present Day: Social and Health Problems 129Mental Health 130Family, Beliefs, and Rituals 131Values and Traditions 132Spiritual Traditions of Native Americans 133Practice Implications 133Intervention 135The PIE System and Native Americans 136Case Study 137PIE Assessment of Mary 138Conclusion 141References 14210 Asian Americans: Ethnocentrism and Discrimination 145Michie N. HesselbrockImmigration and Resettlement Patterns and Consequences 147Chinese 147Japanese 148Filipinos 149Koreans and Asian Indians 150Southeast Asians 150Norms, Beliefs, and Cultural Stereotypes 151Common Beliefs 152Mental Health Problems and Treatment Seeking 155Implications for Social Work Practice 156Summary 157Case Study 158PIE Assessment of Mr.Yee 158Conclusion 159References 15911 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People Confront Heterocentrism, Heterosexism, and Homophobia 162George A. ApplebyHistory 166Historical Oppression in Context 170Definitions 170The Roots of Oppression 173Gender Ideology 173Heterosexual Privilege 174Religion 175Psychiatry/Psychology 176Law and Policy 177Violence and Gay Bashing 178Internalized Homophobia 180Conclusion 181References 18212 Ableism: Social Work Practice with Physically Disabled Individuals 186P. Minou Michilin and Silvia Juarez-MarazzoHistorical Overview 188Bioethics 190The Nature of Disability 191Functional Disability versus Socially Imposed Disability 191Early Age of Onset 193Later Age of Onset 196Vulnerabilities and Risk Factors versus Resilience and Protective Factors 197Person-in-Environment Assessment 201Case Study 201The Social Worker's Role 202Intervention 203Conclusion 203References 20413 Ableism: Mentally and Emotionally Challenged People 206Jaak RakfeldtTheoretical Framework 207Mental Disorders as Social Roles 207Self-Concept 212Social Roles/Relationships and Psychiatric Disability 215Case Study 217Theories of Practice: Person-in-Environment Analysis 219PIE Assessment of Steve 220Conclusion 220References 22114 Social Work Practice with Immigrants 224Silvia Juarez-MarazzoThe Contributions of Social Work to Immigration 224Demographics 225The Outsider 227The Circumstances 228Acculturation versus Adaptation: A Framework 229PIE Analysis 230Case Study 1 231PIE Analysis of Alicia 232Case Study 2 233PIE Analysis of Muny 234Conclusion 235References 23615 Lookism: Bias Based on Appearance 237Esther HoweBeauty Is and Beauty Does 238Appearance Discrimination in the Workplace 239Consequences of Appearance Discrimination on a Personal Level 240The Law 240Impact of Medical Advances on Appearance Discrimination 242Psychosocial Consequences for the Individual 242Case Study 242PIE Assessment of Patty 243Conclusion 245References 24616 The "Ghetto Fabulous" Persona Among African American and Latino Youth: Issues of Social Oppression and Social Functioning 247Edgar Colon, Luis Rodriguez, and Roberto PadillaSocial Functioning Issues in Inner City Communities 250A Person in Environment for Social Work Practice with African American and Latino Urban Youth 252Case Study 254Conclusion 256References 25717 Affirmative Practice with People Who Are Culturally Diverse and Oppressed 259Edgar Colon, George A. Appleby, and Julia HamiltonA Paradigm for Affirmative Practice 259Culture and Diversity: A Transactional View 259The Power of Personal Experience 260Diversity and Worldviews 260Interrelatedness and Interconnectedness of Human Experience 262Interlocking Systems of Oppression 263Practice Implications: Women 263Practice Implications: Gays and Lesbians 264Practice Implications: Latinos 266Practice Implications: African Americans 267Practice Implications: Native Americans 268Practice Implications: The Chronically Mentally Ill and the Physically Challenged 268Micro Systems Intervention 269Mezzo Intervention 271Cultural Competence and the Profession 272Macro Intervention 272Conclusion 273References 274Appendix A: PIE Assessment Forms for Factors I and II

About the Author

Dr. Edgar Colon is a Professor of Social Work at Southern Connecticut State University. Dr. Colon received an Master of Science in Social Welfare from Columbia University and a Doctorate in Social Welfare from the City University of New York Graduate Center at the Hunter College School of Social Work. He has served on Faculty of Social Work of several New York City colleges and universities which include Fordham University, Hunter College and The State University of New York at Stony Brook, to name a few.Dr. Colon brings to teaching a total of twenty-one years teaching and practice experience, in the areas of social welfare management, social policy, human behavior, social oppression and diversity issues, and clinical practice with substance abuse problems. His professional areas of scholarly interest include:health and mental health with particular focus on clinical practice, program design, planning and organization development in ethnic minority communities.

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