About the Author. Other Books by Gavin Reid. Foreword. Preface. Chapter 1 Defining Dyslexia. Defining Dyslexia. Purpose of Definitions. How Should We Define Dyslexia? Definitions. Barriers to Implementing Policy. Rose Review and Dyslexia. Education for Learners with Dyslexia. Different Perspectives and Agenda. Chapter 2 Explaining Dyslexia: The Range of Research. Causal Modelling Framework. Genetic Factors. Neurobiological Factors. Visual and Temporal Processing. Magnocellular Visual System. Procedural Timing. Hemispheric Symmetry. Processing Speed. Phonological Processing. Phonological Awareness and Multisensory Programmes. Morphological Processing. Glue Ear. Cognitive Skills. Metacognition. Environmental Factors. Additional Language Learning. Dyslexia in Different Orthographies. Self-disclosure in Adults. Chapter 3 Assessment: Issues and Considerations. Points to Consider. Discrepancy Criteria. Listening Comprehension. Componential Model of Reading. Curriculum Focus. Why an Assessment? How-the Assessment Process. Effect of an Assessment. Assessment-Points to Consider. Some Other Considerations. Assessment and Inclusion. The Bilingual Learner. Chapter 4 Identifying Needs. Factors that can Prompt Concern. Linking Assessment with the Planning of Intervention. Comorbidity. Assessing Performances. Criteria: Summary. Whose Responsibility. Early Identification. Models of Identification. Expert/Intervention-Attainment. Barriers to Learning. Whole-school Involvement. Chapter 5 Assessment: Approaches and Resources. The Use of Tests-Points to Ponder. Cognitive Measures. Assessment of Processing Skills. Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests. Gray Oral Reading Tests (Gort-4). Standardised/Psychometric Criteria. Standardisation. Psychometric. Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT). Comment. Phonological Representation and Assessment. Screening. Curriculum Assessment. Miscue Analysis. Assessment in Context. Metacognitive Assessment. Multiple Intelligences Approaches. A Components Approach. Observational Assessment. Observational Framework. Systematic Observation. Summary. Chapter 6 Reading-Social, Cultural and Government Perspectives. The Social Context for Literacy. Literacy and Culture. Defining Literacy. Critical Literacy. Challenging Assumptions. Government Initiatives. Literacy Standards and International Comparisons. Pisa Study. Literacy Initiatives. Chapter 7 The Acquisition of Literacy. What is Reading? Factors to Consider. Reading as a Process. Reading Skills. Reading Practice. Developing Reading Skills. Key Factors. The Development of Reading. Stages of Reading Development. Limitations of the Stage Model of Reading. Reading and Memory. Relationship between Phonology and Orthography. Dyslexia and Different Orthographies. Chapter 8 Reading Models and Methods. Bottom-Up and Top Down Models. Connectionist Models. Balance Model of Reading. Method of Teaching Reading. Developing Reading Skills. Teaching Reading-the Debate. Reading Interventions. Methodological Issues in Reading Intervention Research. Factors to Consider in Developing and Using Reading Approaches. The Literacy Experience. Framework for Teaching. Summary. Chapter 9 The Acquisition of Literacy: Spelling. Why is Spelling Difficult? Systems Involved in Spelling. Spelling Skills. Spelling Development. Spelling Policy. Spelling Strategies. Spelling Materials. Chapter 10 Expressive Writing. The Importance of Writing. Relationship between Writing and Spelling. Expressive Writing: The Process. Cognitive Skills Associated with Writing. Writing in the Curriculum. Developing Metacognitive Skills through Writing. Metacognitive Strategies for Writing. Strategies for Writing. Motivation and Writing. Planning. Pre-writing Framework. Developing Ideas. Handwriting. Summary. Chapter 11 Teaching Approaches: Points to Consider. The Context. Assessment and the Curriculum. The Learner. Programmes and Approaches-Some Considerations. Over-learning. Principles. Issues. Chapter 12 Supporting Literacy: Individualised Programmes. Criteria for Selection. Alpha to Omega. Orton-Gillingham. Procedure. The Hickey Multisensory Language Course. Bangor Dyslexia Teaching System. Tackling Dyslexia. Alphabetic Phonics. The Slingerland Programme. Letterland. Reading Recovery. Toe By Toe: Multisensory Manual for Teachers and Parents. Comment-Issues to Consider. Chapter 13 Supporting Literacy: Approaches and Strategies. Phonics Instructional Approaches. Language Experience. Other Support Approaches. Phonological Approaches. High-interest Books-History. Start to Finish Books. Differentiated Texts. Visual Factors. Motor Aspects. Assisted Learning. Summary. Chapter 14 Supporting Learning. Effective Learning. Key Points About Learning. The Learning Process. Realising Potential. Zone of Proximal Development. Developing Learning Skills. Learning Strategies. Multiple Intelligences. Study Skills. Set Goals. Feedback. Memory-Some Strategies. The Role of Self-esteem. Creativity and the 'Gifted' Dyslexic Student. Summary. Chapter 15 Inclusion: Curriculum Access. The Context. Responding to the Diverse Needs of Students. The Challenges. Meeting Curriculum Objectives. Index for Inclusion. Tensions and Contradictions. Assessment, Need and Accountability. Removing Barriers to Achievement. Interventions and Inclusion. Making the School Inclusive. Equity. Principles of Inclusion. An Inclusive School. Healthy Schools. Supporting Inclusion. Staff Support and Training. Student Advocacy. Dyslexia and Self-advocacy. Staff Support. Key Factors. Chapter 16 Inclusion in Secondary Education: Accessing the Curriculum. Responsibility. Features of Secondary Schools. Differentiation and Curricular Development. Differentiation and Assessment. Subject Areas. Multiple Intelligences in Secondary Schools. Physical Education. Staff Development. Challenges: Key Areas. Chapter 17 Inclusion: Further and Higher Education and the Workplace. Further and Higher Education. The Workplace. Concluding Comment. Chapter 18 Issues and Concerns. Issue 1. Multilingualism. Issue 2. The Use of Computers and Technology. Issue 3. Overlap, Continuum and Intervention. Issue 4. Alternative Therapies. Issue 5. Training and Professional Development. Comment on Issues. Chapter 19 The Role of Parents. Parental Concerns. Parental Support. Parents' Challenges. Parents as Partners. Appendix 1 Some Tests for Dyslexia that Can Be Used by Teachers. Appendix 2 Further Contacts. References. Index.
Dr Gavin Reid is a consultant on learning disabilities at the Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching (CCET) in Kuwait, and an independent educational psychologist in Vancouver, Canada. He is also co-founder and director of the Red Rose School for children with specific learning difficulties, St Annes-on-Sea, Lancashire, UK. He was formally senior lecturer at Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh, UK.