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Dyslexia
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Table of Contents

About the Author xiv Other Books by Gavin Reid xvi Foreword xviii Preface xxi Chapter 1 Defining Dyslexia 1 Defining Dyslexia 2 Purpose of Definitions 4 How Should We Define Dyslexia? 5 Definitions 7 Barriers to Implementing Policy 11 Rose Review and Dyslexia 11 Education for Learners with Dyslexia 12 Different Perspectives and Agenda 14 Points for Reflection 15 Chapter 2 Explaining Dyslexia: The Range of Research 17 Causal Modelling Framework 18 Genetic Factors 19 Neurobiological Factors 20 Visual and Temporal Processing 20 Magnocellular Visual System 20 Procedural Timing 22 Hemispheric Symmetry 23 Processing Speed 24 Phonological Processing 25 Phonological Awareness and Multisensory Programmes 25 Morphological Processing 26 Glue Ear 27 Cognitive Skills 29 Metacognition 29 Environmental Factors 29 Additional Language Learning 30 Dyslexia in Different Orthographies 31 Self ]disclosure in Adults 33 Points for Reflection 34 Chapter 3 Assessment: Issues and Considerations 35 The Context 35 Assessment Aims 37 Discrepancy Criteria 37 Listening Comprehension 38 Componential Model of Reading 38 Curriculum Focus 39 Why an Assessment? 40 How? The Assessment Process 40 Effect of an Assessment 42 Assessment-Points to Consider 42 Some Other Considerations 42 Assessment and Inclusion 46 The Bilingual Learner 46 Points for Reflection 47 Chapter 4 Identifying Needs 48 The Context 48 Information Processing 49 Factors That Can Prompt Concern 50 Linking Assessment with Intervention and Support 52 Key Aspects of an IEP 52 The Overlap 53 Assessing Performances 53 Criteria: Summary 54 Whose Responsibility? 57 Early Identification 57 Models of Identification 59 Expert/Intervention-Attainment 59 Barriers to Learning 63 Whole ]School Involvement 64 Points for Reflection 65 Chapter 5 Assessment: Approaches and Resources 66 The Use of Tests-Points to Ponder 67 Assessment and Information Processing 67 Cognitive Measures 68 Assessment of Processing Skills 69 Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP ]2) 70 Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests 71 Gray Oral Reading Tests (GORT ]5) 71 Standardised/Psychometric Criteria 71 Standardisation 72 Psychometric 73 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT ]II and III) 74 Comment 74 Phonological Representation and Assessment 75 Screening 76 Curriculum Assessment 79 Miscue Analysis 80 Assessment in Context 81 Assessment for Learning 82 Metacognitive Assessment 83 Multiple Intelligences Approaches 85 A Components Approach 86 Observational Assessment 88 Observational Framework 88 Systematic Observation 92 Summary 93 Points for Reflection 94 Chapter 6 Reading-Social, Cultural and Government Perspectives 95 The Social Context for Literacy 95 Literacy and Culture 95 Defining Literacy 96 Critical Literacy 98 Challenging Assumptions 101 Government Initiatives 102 Literacy Standards and International Comparisons 104 PISA Study 106 Literacy Initiatives 106 Points for Reflection 107 Chapter 7 The Acquisition of Literacy 108 What is Reading? 108 Factors to Consider 109 Reading as a Process 110 Reading Skills 111 Reading Practice 112 Developing Reading Skills 112 Key Factors 112 The Development of Reading 114 Stages of Reading Development 117 Limitations of the Stage Model of Reading 119 Reading and Memory 120 Relationship Between Phonology and Orthography 120 Dyslexia and Different Orthographies 121 Points for Reflection 122 Chapter 8 Reading Models and Methods 123 Bottom ]Up and Top ]Down Models 123 Connectionist Models 125 Balance Model of Reading 126 Method of Teaching Reading 127 Developing Reading Skills 131 Teaching Reading-the Debate 132 Reading Interventions 135 Methodological Issues in Reading Intervention Research 137 Factors to Consider in Developing and Using Reading Approaches 138 The Literacy Experience 141 Framework for Teaching 142 Summary 143 Points for Reflection 144 Chapter 9 The Acquisition of Literacy: Spelling 145 Why is Spelling Difficult? 145 Systems Involved in Spelling 146 Spelling Skills 148 Spelling Development 149 Spelling Policy 150 Spelling Strategies 150 Spelling Materials 156 Points for Reflection 157 Chapter 10 Expressive Writing 158 The Importance of Writing 158 Relationship Between Writing and Spelling 159 Expressive Writing: The Process 160 Cognitive Skills Associated with Writing 160 Writing in the Curriculum 161 Developing Metacognitive Skills through Writing 162 Metacognitive Strategies for Writing 163 Strategies for Writing 165 Motivation and Writing 166 Planning 167 Pre ]writing Framework 167 Developing Ideas 169 Handwriting 171 Summary 172 Points for Reflection 173 Chapter 11 Teaching Approaches: Points to Consider 174 Overview of Approaches 175 The Context 176 Assessment and the Curriculum 177 The Learner 178 Programmes and Approaches-Some Considerations 179 Overlearning 182 Principles 183 Issues 183 Points for Reflection 186 Chapter 12 Supporting Literacy: Individualised Programmes 188 Criteria for Selection 189 Orton-Gillingham (OG) 192 The Hickey Multisensory Language Course 194 Bangor Dyslexia Teaching System 195 Letterland 197 Reading Recovery 198 Toe by Toe: Multisensory Manual for Teachers and Parents 202 Alternative Approaches 203 Comment-Issues to Consider 209 Points for Reflection 210 Chapter 13 Supporting Literacy: Approaches and Strategies 211 Phonics Instructional Approaches 211 Language Experience 215 Other Support Approaches 216 Phonological Approaches 218 High ]Interest Books-History 219 Barrington Stoke (www.barringtonstoke.com) 220 Start to Finish Books 220 Differentiated Texts 221 Visual Factors 221 Motor Aspects 224 Assisted Learning 225 Summary 229 Points for Reflection 230 Chapter 14 Supporting Learning 231 Effective Learning 231 Key Points about Learning 233 The Learning Process 233 Realising Potential 236 Zone of Proximal Development 237 Developing Learning Skills 237 Learning Strategies 238 Multiple Intelligences 241 Study Skills 244 Set Goals 246 Feedback 246 Memory-Some Strategies 247 The Role of Self ]esteem 249 Creativity and the 'Gifted' Dyslexic Student 249 Summary 250 Points for Reflection 251 Chapter 15 Inclusion: Curriculum Access 252 The Context 252 Responding to the Diverse Needs of Students 254 The Challenges 255 Meeting Curriculum Objectives 257 Index for Inclusion 257 Tensions and Contradictions 259 Assessment, Need and Accountability 260 Removing Barriers to Achievement 261 Interventions and Inclusion 261 Making the School Inclusive 264 Equity 265 Principles of Inclusion 266 An Inclusive School 268 Healthy Schools 268 Supporting Inclusion 269 Staff Support and Training 270 Student Advocacy 272 Dyslexia and Self ]advocacy 273 Staff Support 274 Key Factors 275 Points for Reflection 275 Chapter 16 Inclusion in Secondary Education: Accessing the the Curriculum 276 Responsibility 277 Features of Secondary Schools 277 Differentiation and Curricular Development 280 Differentiation and Assessment 281 Subject Areas 281 Multiple Intelligences in Secondary Schools 294 Physical Education 295 Staff Development 296 Challenges: Key Areas 297 Points for Reflection 299 Chapter 17 Inclusion: Further and Higher Education and the Workplace 300 Further and Higher Education 301 The Workplace 313 Concluding Comment 315 Points for Reflection 316 Chapter 18 The Role of Parents 317 Parental Concerns 318 Parental Support 320 Parents' Challenges 322 Parents as Partners 324 Points for Reflection 324 Chapter 19 Multilingualism: Challenges and Responses 325 Background and Context 325 Cultural Factors 326 Culture ]fair Assessment 330 Teaching 331 Key Principles 332 Metacognitive Awareness/Schema 333 Concluding Points 334 Points for Reflection 334 Chapter 20 The Overlap-Dyslexia: Attention, Coordination, Auditory Processing and Numeracy 335 Introduction 335 The Overlap Dilemma 336 Attention Issues 337 Identifying and Defining Attention Difficulties 340 Intervention 342 ADHD and Creativity 345 Coordination, Movement and Handwriting 346 Intervention Strategies-15 Tasks to Try 347 Handwriting 348 Dysgraphia Strategies 349 Early Intervention 350 Auditory Processing 351 Intervention 352 Difficulty with Numbers 354 Reading in Mathematics 356 Diagnosing Dyscalculia 356 Intervention 357 Points for Reflection 359 Chapter 21 The Use of Computers and Technology 360 Introduction 360 Approaches Using New Technology 363 Resources-Computer Programs 364 British Dyslexia Association New Technologies Committee (BDA NTC) 365 Comment 366 Points for Reflection 366 Chapter 22 Positive Dyslexia 367 The Background 367 Five Key Factors 368 How Dyslexia Affects Children's Learning 370 Metacognition 370 Encourage Creativity 371 Provide Feedback to Students About Their Own Personal Progress 371 Encourage Self ]assessment 371 Develop Student Responsibility 372 Enhancing Creativity 372 Concluding Comment 374 Points for Reflection 374 Appendix 1 Some Popular Tests for Dyslexia that Can Be Used by Teachers 375 Test of Phonological Awareness, Second Edition: Plus (TOPA-2+) (2004) 375 Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, Second Edition (CTOPP-2) (2013) 375 Launch Into Reading Success-Test of Phonological Awareness (1997) 376 GORT-5: Gray Oral Reading Tests, Fifth Edition (2012) 376 TOWRE-2-Test of Word Reading Efficiency, Second Edition (2012) 377 WIST (Word Identification and Spelling Test) (2004) 377 DIBELS 378 Bangor Dyslexia Screening Test 378 Dyslexia Screening Test-Junior (DST-J) (2004) 379 Dyslexia Screening Test-Secondary (DST-S) (2004) 379 Dyslexia Screener (2004) 380 Cognitive Profiling System (CoPS) Version 5.1 (2010) 381 Special Needs Assessment Profile 381 WIAT-II UK for Teachers (2006) 382 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II) (UK Norms and III US and Canada Norms Only) 382 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II) (UK Norms and III US and Canada Norms Only) 382 Phonological Assessment Battery Revised (PhAB-2 ) 383 HAST-2 Helen Arkell Spelling Test 383 Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4) 384 Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML-2) (2003) 384 Test of Auditory Processing Skills-3 (TAPS-3) 384 Appendix 2 Further Contacts 385 International 385 North and South America and Canada 385 Australia and New Zealand 387 Europe 387 Middle East 388 Asia 389 Africa 389 Other Websites 390 Organisations 391 Articles and Reviews About Dyslexia 392 Literacy 393 References 394 Index 437

About the Author

Gavin Reid is an experienced teacher, psychologist and author, and the owner/director of Dr Gavin Reid Education Consultants Ltd. He was formerly Senior Lecturer in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of Edinburgh, UK, and Visiting Professor in the Department of Education and Counseling Psychology and Special Education at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. He is a director of the Red Rose School in Lancashire, UK, and a director of Global Educational Consultancies (GEC) based in Cairo, Egypt. He is chair of the BDA accreditation board, an ambassador for the Helen Arkell Dyslexia Centre and a consultant to Institute for Child Education and Psychology Europe (ICEPE). He is the author and editor of 27 books, and has lectured to thousands of parents and professionals in 70 countries. His work has been recognized with several educational awards, many of his books are used as course texts throughout the UK and in other countries, and they have been translated into Italian, French, Polish and Croatian.

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