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EMOTION 3/E
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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Thought/Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further Reading. Preface: Acknowledgments: PART 1. WHAT ARE EMOTIONS, AND WHY DO WE HAVE THEM? Chapter 1. The Nature of Emotion What Is Emotion? An Attempt to Define Emotion: A Different Type of Definition: The Prototype Approach: Classic Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory: Cannon-Bard Theory: Schachter-Singer Theory: Modern Theories of Emotion Basic/Discrete Emotions: Core Affect and Psychological Construction: The Component Process Model: Which Modern Theory Is Right?: Research Methods: How Do We Study Emotion?: Inducing Emotion: Measuring Emotion: --Self-Reports --Physiological Measurements --Behavioral Observations Do Different Aspects of Emotion Hang Together? Chapter 2. The Evolution of Emotion What Is an Evolutionary Perspective? Basic Principles of Evolutionary Theory: Emotions as Adaptations: Functions of Emotion Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion: Social Functions of Emotion: Role of Evolution in Modern Theories of Emotion The Signal Value of Emotional Feelings: Approach and Avoidance Motivation: Emotions as Superordinate Neural Programs: A Phylogeny of Emotions?: Methodological Considerations Example: Are Physiological Aspects of Emotion Universal?: Chapter 3. Culture and Emotion What Is Culture? A Definition and Its Implications: Cultural Differences in Concepts of Emotion Do All Cultures Have the Same "Basic" Emotions?: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Hyper- Versus Hypocognized Emotions: Aspects of Culture That Predict Differences in Emotion Individualism Versus Collectivism: Power Distance: Vertical Versus Horizontal Societies: Linear Versus Dialectical Epistemology: Methodological Considerations Example: Culture of Honor and Implications for Anger: Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches Ekman (1972): Neurocultural Theory of Emotion: Russell (1991): Emotion Episodes as Socially Constructed Scripts: Keltner & Haidt (1999): Levels of Analysis: Chapter 4. What Elicits Emotions? What Is Appraisal? The Speed of Emotional Appraisals: What Is the Content of Appraisal? Core Relational Themes: Appraisal Dimensions: Which Approach Is Correct?: Evidence Linking Appraisal to Emotion Does Appraisal Cause Emotion?: Universals and Cultural Differences in Emotional Appraisals: Is Appraisal Necessary for Emotion? The Mere Exposure Effect: Example: What Elicits Anger? Core Relational Theme Approach: Appraisal Dimension Approach: No-Cognition Approach: The Cognitive Neoassociationistic Model: Chapter 5. Emotional Expression in the Face, Posture, and Voice Historical Importance of Facial Expression Research Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal? Ekman's Cross-cultural Studies: How Many Expressions Are There?: Culture and Emotional Expression Cultural Display Rules: Facial Expression Dialects: Emotion in Posture and the Voice Posture and Emotion: Vocal Expression of Emotion: Can Expression Influence Emotional Feelings? PART 2. HOW DO EMOTIONS AFFECT OUR LIVES? Chapter 6. Emotion and the Central Nervous System Methods to Study Emotion and the Brain Brain Damage: Electroencephalography: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Neurochemistry Techniques: The Reverse Inference Problem: The Amygdala and Emotion Effects of Amygdala Damage: Laboratory Studies of Fear Conditioning: Events That Activate the Human Amygdala: The Amygdala and Emotional Memory: Emotion Neuroanatomy: Important Structures The Hypothalamus: The Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area: The Insular Cortex: The Prefrontal Cortex: Emotion Neurochemistry: Important Neurotransmitters Dopamine: B-Endorphin and the Opioid Peptides: Serotonin: Oxytocin: Theories of Emotion: Evidence from Neuroscience: Chapter 7. The Autonomic Nervous System and Hormones The Autonomic Nervous System Fight or Flight: The Sympathetic Nervous System: Rest and Digest: The Parasympathetic Nervous System: How the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems Work Together: Hormones and the Endocrine System Measuring Physiological Aspects of Emotion Commonly Used Measures: Measurement Challenges: The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion Are Bodily Sensations Necessary for Emotional Feelings?: Autonomic Nervous System Specificity of Emotions: Culture and Emotion Physiology: Physiological Aspects of Positive Emotions: Stress and Its Health Consequences Hans Selye and the Concept of Stress: Defining and Measuring Stress: How Stress Can Affect Health: Chapter 8. Emotional Development Emotional Reactions in Infancy Crying: Smiling and Laughing: Responses to Danger: When Do Specific Emotions Emerge? How Do Emotions Develop? Physical Maturation: Cognitive Maturation: Social Interaction: Development of Emotional Communication: Perceiving, Sharing, and Talking About Emotions Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotion: Emotional Language: Socialization of Emotional Expression Emotion in Adolescence Emotional Development in Adulthood Individual Consistency Across the Lifespan: Age Trends in Emotion: Chapter 9. Emotion in Relationships and Society Early Emotional Bonds: Infant Attachment What Is the Function of Attachment?: Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: Types of Attachment: Secure, Anxious-Ambivalent, and Avoidant: Romantic Love and Marriage Romantic Attraction and Falling in Love: Attachment in Adult Romantic Relationships: Marriage: Predicting Satisfaction and Stability: Emotions in Caring for Others Sympathy, Compassion, and Nurturant Love: Empathy: Emotions in Society Attachment Processes in Friendships and Groups: Gratitude: Find, Remind, and Bind: The Appeasement Function of Embarrassment: Pride and Social Status: Chapter 10. Emotion and Cognition Emotions and Attention Emotions and Memory Emotion and Memory Encoding: Emotion and Consolidation: Emotion and Retrieval: Emotions and Information Processing Systematic Versus Heuristic Processing: Mood and Systematic Versus Heuristic Cognition: Are Depressed People More Realistic?: Positive Affect and Creativity: Emotions and Decision Making The Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Choices Based on Preferences and Values: Emotions and Moral Reasoning: The Downside of Relying on Emotions: PART 3. HOW CAN WE IMPROVE EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING? Chapter 11. The Value of Negative Emotions Fear The Value of Fear: The Biology of Fear and Anxiety: Individual Differences: Gender and Genetics: Anger The Value of Anger: The Biology of Anger and Aggression: Individual Differences: Expression and Management: Disgust The Biology of Disgust: Individual Differences: Development and Implications: Sadness The Value of Sadness: The Biology of Sadness: Individual Differences: Aging and Loss: Embarrassment, Shame, and Guilt The Value of Self-Conscious Negative Emotions: The Biology of Embarrassment: Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions: Chapter 12. Happiness and the Positive Emotions Is Happiness an Emotion? Measuring Subjective Well-Being: What Predicts Happiness? Personality: The Top-Down Theory of Happiness: Life Events That Impact Happiness: Wealth and Happiness: Other Correlates of Happiness: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotion Are There Multiple Positive Emotions? Enthusiasm: The Anticipation of Reward: Contentment: Pride: Love: Amusement and Humor: Awe: Hope and Optimism: Chapter 13. Individual Differences in Emotion Gender and Emotion Gender Differences in Emotional Experience and Expression: Gender and Emotion Regulation: Gender and Empathy: Personality and Emotion Biological Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Emotion Frontal Lobe Activation Asymmetry: Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism: Emotional Intelligence Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Reliability and Validity of Emotional Intelligence Tests: Can Emotional Intelligence Be Taught?: Chapter 14. Emotion in Clinical Psychology Diagnosis in Clinical Psychology Major Depressive Disorder Multiple Types of Depression?: Causes of Depression: Treating Depression: Mania and Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorders Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Treating Anxiety Disorders: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Emotional Disturbances as Transdiagnostic Aspects of Disorder Chapter 15. Emotion Regulation Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms: An Early Taxonomy of Coping Strategies The Process Model of Emotion Regulation Situation-Focused Strategies Choosing Situations Wisely: Active Coping: Changing the Situation: Cognition-Focused Strategies Attentional Control: Cognitive Reappraisal: Different Types of Reappraisal: Response-Focused Strategies Escaping Emotions: Drugs, Alcohol, and Food: Suppressing Emotional Expression: Catharsis: Expressing Your Feelings: Exercise: Relaxation: The Neurobiology of Emotion Regulation Which Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Best? References:

About the Author

Michelle "Lani" Shiota is Associate Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her work has been published in high-impact journals including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychologist, and Emotion. James Kalat is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University. He is the best-selling author of Introduction to Psychology (2017) and Biological Psychology (2016).

Reviews

"This text provides an excellent overview of the field, starting with foundational questions and building to topics that interest a wide range of students."--Andrea Heberlein, Boston College "Emotion, Third Edition, is well written, engaging, and visually interesting."--Anna Luerssen, Lehman College CUNY "I think this text is well organized, insightful, and informative, and I would highly recommend it to my colleagues."--Taunjah Bell Neasman, Jackson State University

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