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Table of Contents

Each chapter ends with a Summary, Key Terms, Thought/Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further Reading. Preface: Acknowledgments: PART 1. WHAT ARE EMOTIONS, AND WHY DO WE HAVE THEM? Chapter 1. The Nature of Emotion What Is Emotion? An Attempt to Define Emotion: A Different Type of Definition: The Prototype Approach: Classic Theories of Emotion James-Lange Theory: Cannon-Bard Theory: Schachter-Singer Theory: Modern Theories of Emotion Basic/Discrete Emotions: Core Affect and Psychological Construction: The Component Process Model: Which Modern Theory Is Right?: Research Methods: How Do We Study Emotion?: Inducing Emotion: Measuring Emotion: --Self-Reports --Physiological Measurements --Behavioral Observations Do Different Aspects of Emotion Hang Together? Chapter 2. The Evolution of Emotion What Is an Evolutionary Perspective? Basic Principles of Evolutionary Theory: Emotions as Adaptations: Functions of Emotion Intrapersonal Functions of Emotion: Social Functions of Emotion: Role of Evolution in Modern Theories of Emotion The Signal Value of Emotional Feelings: Approach and Avoidance Motivation: Emotions as Superordinate Neural Programs: A Phylogeny of Emotions?: Methodological Considerations Example: Are Physiological Aspects of Emotion Universal?: Chapter 3. Culture and Emotion What Is Culture? A Definition and Its Implications: Cultural Differences in Concepts of Emotion Do All Cultures Have the Same "Basic" Emotions?: The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Hyper- Versus Hypocognized Emotions: Aspects of Culture That Predict Differences in Emotion Individualism Versus Collectivism: Power Distance: Vertical Versus Horizontal Societies: Linear Versus Dialectical Epistemology: Methodological Considerations Example: Culture of Honor and Implications for Anger: Integrating Evolutionary and Cultural Approaches Ekman (1972): Neurocultural Theory of Emotion: Russell (1991): Emotion Episodes as Socially Constructed Scripts: Keltner & Haidt (1999): Levels of Analysis: Chapter 4. What Elicits Emotions? What Is Appraisal? The Speed of Emotional Appraisals: What Is the Content of Appraisal? Core Relational Themes: Appraisal Dimensions: Which Approach Is Correct?: Evidence Linking Appraisal to Emotion Does Appraisal Cause Emotion?: Universals and Cultural Differences in Emotional Appraisals: Is Appraisal Necessary for Emotion? The Mere Exposure Effect: Example: What Elicits Anger? Core Relational Theme Approach: Appraisal Dimension Approach: No-Cognition Approach: The Cognitive Neoassociationistic Model: Chapter 5. Emotional Expression in the Face, Posture, and Voice Historical Importance of Facial Expression Research Are Facial Expressions of Emotion Universal? Ekman's Cross-cultural Studies: How Many Expressions Are There?: Culture and Emotional Expression Cultural Display Rules: Facial Expression Dialects: Emotion in Posture and the Voice Posture and Emotion: Vocal Expression of Emotion: Can Expression Influence Emotional Feelings? PART 2. HOW DO EMOTIONS AFFECT OUR LIVES? Chapter 6. Emotion and the Central Nervous System Methods to Study Emotion and the Brain Brain Damage: Electroencephalography: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Neurochemistry Techniques: The Reverse Inference Problem: The Amygdala and Emotion Effects of Amygdala Damage: Laboratory Studies of Fear Conditioning: Events That Activate the Human Amygdala: The Amygdala and Emotional Memory: Emotion Neuroanatomy: Important Structures The Hypothalamus: The Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area: The Insular Cortex: The Prefrontal Cortex: Emotion Neurochemistry: Important Neurotransmitters Dopamine: B-Endorphin and the Opioid Peptides: Serotonin: Oxytocin: Theories of Emotion: Evidence from Neuroscience: Chapter 7. The Autonomic Nervous System and Hormones The Autonomic Nervous System Fight or Flight: The Sympathetic Nervous System: Rest and Digest: The Parasympathetic Nervous System: How the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Systems Work Together: Hormones and the Endocrine System Measuring Physiological Aspects of Emotion Commonly Used Measures: Measurement Challenges: The Autonomic Nervous System and Emotion Are Bodily Sensations Necessary for Emotional Feelings?: Autonomic Nervous System Specificity of Emotions: Culture and Emotion Physiology: Physiological Aspects of Positive Emotions: Stress and Its Health Consequences Hans Selye and the Concept of Stress: Defining and Measuring Stress: How Stress Can Affect Health: Chapter 8. Emotional Development Emotional Reactions in Infancy Crying: Smiling and Laughing: Responses to Danger: When Do Specific Emotions Emerge? How Do Emotions Develop? Physical Maturation: Cognitive Maturation: Social Interaction: Development of Emotional Communication: Perceiving, Sharing, and Talking About Emotions Interpreting Facial Expressions of Emotion: Emotional Language: Socialization of Emotional Expression Emotion in Adolescence Emotional Development in Adulthood Individual Consistency Across the Lifespan: Age Trends in Emotion: Chapter 9. Emotion in Relationships and Society Early Emotional Bonds: Infant Attachment What Is the Function of Attachment?: Behavioral and Biological Mechanisms of Attachment: Types of Attachment: Secure, Anxious-Ambivalent, and Avoidant: Romantic Love and Marriage Romantic Attraction and Falling in Love: Attachment in Adult Romantic Relationships: Marriage: Predicting Satisfaction and Stability: Emotions in Caring for Others Sympathy, Compassion, and Nurturant Love: Empathy: Emotions in Society Attachment Processes in Friendships and Groups: Gratitude: Find, Remind, and Bind: The Appeasement Function of Embarrassment: Pride and Social Status: Chapter 10. Emotion and Cognition Emotions and Attention Emotions and Memory Emotion and Memory Encoding: Emotion and Consolidation: Emotion and Retrieval: Emotions and Information Processing Systematic Versus Heuristic Processing: Mood and Systematic Versus Heuristic Cognition: Are Depressed People More Realistic?: Positive Affect and Creativity: Emotions and Decision Making The Somatic Marker Hypothesis: Choices Based on Preferences and Values: Emotions and Moral Reasoning: The Downside of Relying on Emotions: PART 3. HOW CAN WE IMPROVE EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING? Chapter 11. The Value of Negative Emotions Fear The Value of Fear: The Biology of Fear and Anxiety: Individual Differences: Gender and Genetics: Anger The Value of Anger: The Biology of Anger and Aggression: Individual Differences: Expression and Management: Disgust The Biology of Disgust: Individual Differences: Development and Implications: Sadness The Value of Sadness: The Biology of Sadness: Individual Differences: Aging and Loss: Embarrassment, Shame, and Guilt The Value of Self-Conscious Negative Emotions: The Biology of Embarrassment: Individual Differences in Self-Conscious Emotions: Chapter 12. Happiness and the Positive Emotions Is Happiness an Emotion? Measuring Subjective Well-Being: What Predicts Happiness? Personality: The Top-Down Theory of Happiness: Life Events That Impact Happiness: Wealth and Happiness: Other Correlates of Happiness: The Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotion Are There Multiple Positive Emotions? Enthusiasm: The Anticipation of Reward: Contentment: Pride: Love: Amusement and Humor: Awe: Hope and Optimism: Chapter 13. Individual Differences in Emotion Gender and Emotion Gender Differences in Emotional Experience and Expression: Gender and Emotion Regulation: Gender and Empathy: Personality and Emotion Biological Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Emotion Frontal Lobe Activation Asymmetry: Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism: Emotional Intelligence Measuring Emotional Intelligence: Reliability and Validity of Emotional Intelligence Tests: Can Emotional Intelligence Be Taught?: Chapter 14. Emotion in Clinical Psychology Diagnosis in Clinical Psychology Major Depressive Disorder Multiple Types of Depression?: Causes of Depression: Treating Depression: Mania and Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Disorders Causes of Anxiety Disorders: Treating Anxiety Disorders: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Antisocial Personality Disorder Emotional Disturbances as Transdiagnostic Aspects of Disorder Chapter 15. Emotion Regulation Freud's Ego Defense Mechanisms: An Early Taxonomy of Coping Strategies The Process Model of Emotion Regulation Situation-Focused Strategies Choosing Situations Wisely: Active Coping: Changing the Situation: Cognition-Focused Strategies Attentional Control: Cognitive Reappraisal: Different Types of Reappraisal: Response-Focused Strategies Escaping Emotions: Drugs, Alcohol, and Food: Suppressing Emotional Expression: Catharsis: Expressing Your Feelings: Exercise: Relaxation: The Neurobiology of Emotion Regulation Which Emotion Regulation Strategies Are Best? References:

About the Author

Michelle "Lani" Shiota is Associate Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her work has been published in high-impact journals including Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, American Psychologist, and Emotion. James Kalat is Professor Emeritus at North Carolina State University. He is the best-selling author of Introduction to Psychology (2017) and Biological Psychology (2016).


"This text provides an excellent overview of the field, starting with foundational questions and building to topics that interest a wide range of students."--Andrea Heberlein, Boston College "Emotion, Third Edition, is well written, engaging, and visually interesting."--Anna Luerssen, Lehman College CUNY "I think this text is well organized, insightful, and informative, and I would highly recommend it to my colleagues."--Taunjah Bell Neasman, Jackson State University

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