1. Introduction; 2. Theory, research and the early childhood curriculum; 3. Play, learning and development: how views of development shape how curriculum is framed; 4. Curriculum as cultural broker; 5. Interpreting early childhood curriculum; 6. Cultural-historical curriculum in action; 7. Curriculum as a conceptual tool: observation, content and programming; 8. Assessing children and evaluating curriculum: shifting lenses; 9. Content knowledge: science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); 10. Content knowledge: language and literacies; 11. Content knowledge: the arts and health, wellbeing and physical activity; 12. Conclusions.