Chapter 1: Basic Principles of Two-Dimensional Ultrasound ImagingIntroductionFundamental Principles of UltrasoundImage ProductionImage ResolutionImage Optimisation via Ultrasound Instrument Controls2D Imaging ArtefactsBioeffects and SafetyChapter 2: The Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic ExaminationIntroductionAcoustic WindowsImaging PlanesStandard 2D ImagesOrientation and Probe ManipulationsThe Parasternal Position and Imaging ViewsThe Apical Position and Imaging ViewsThe Subcostal Position and Imaging ViewsThe Suprasternal Position and Imaging ViewsAdditional Acoustic WindowsChapter 3: Basic Principles of M-Mode EchocardiographyIntroductionBasic Principles of M-modeAdvantages of M-ModeDisadvantages of M-ModeOptimisation of M-mode TracesChapter 4: Basic Principles of M-Mode EchocardiographyIntroductionM-Mode Examination of the Aorta, Aortic Valve and Left AtriumM-Mode Examination of the Mitral ValveM-Mode Examination of the Left VentricleM-Mode Examination of the Pulmonary ValveM-Mode Examination of the Tricuspid ValveChapter 5: Basic Principles of Spectral DopplerIntroductionNormal and Abnormal Blood FlowThe Doppler PrinciplePressure DeterminationThe Spectral Doppler DisplayDoppler Modalities and PrinciplesSpectral Doppler Controls and Optimisation of Spectral Doppler SignalsSpectral Doppler ArtefactsChapter 6: The Spectral Doppler ExaminationIntroductionDoppler Examination of Mitral Valve InflowDoppler Tissue Imaging of the Mitral AnnulusDoppler Examination of Pulmonary Venous FlowDoppler Examination of the Left Ventricular Outflow TractDoppler Examination of the Aortic ValveDoppler Examination of the Descending AortaDoppler Examination of the Abdominal AortaDoppler Examination of the Right Ventricular Outflow TractDoppler Examination of the Pulmonary ValveDoppler Examination of Tricuspid Valve InflowDoppler Tissue Imaging of the Tricuspid AnnulusDoppler Examination of Hepatic Venous FlowDoppler Examination of Superior Vena Caval FlowChapter 7: Basic Principles of Colour Flow Doppler ImagingIntroductionColour Flow Doppler PrinciplesThe Colour Doppler DisplayOptimisation of Colour Flow Doppler ImagesColour Flow Doppler ArtefactsChapter 8: The Colour Flow Doppler ExaminationIntroductionColour Flow Doppler Examination of LA InflowColour Flow Doppler Examination of LV InflowColour Flow Doppler Examination of LV OutflowColour Flow Doppler Examination of Aortic FlowColour Flow Doppler Examination of RA InflowColour Flow Doppler Examination of RV InflowColour Flow Doppler Examination of RVOT and Pulmonary ArteryColour Flow Doppler Examination of the SeptaChapter 9: Two-Dimensional Echocardiographic Measurements and CalculationsIntroductionMeasurements of the Left VentricleMeasurements of the Right VentricleMeasurements of the Left and Right AtriaMeasurements of the AnnuliMeasurements of the Great VesselsMeasurements of Valve AreasChapter 10: M-Mode Echocardiographic Measurements and CalculationsIntroductionMeasurements of the Aorta, LA and IVCMeasurements of the Left VentricleMeasurements of the Right VentricleValvular Stenosis and LVOT ObstructionIntracardiac Pressure EstimationChapter 11: Doppler Haemodynamic CalculationsIntroductionVolumetric Flow CalculationsThe Continuity PrincipleThe Bernoulli EquationIntracardiac Pressure EstimationChapter 12: Doppler Valve Area CalculationsIntroductionContinuity Equation for Valve Area CalculationsMitral Valve Area by PISAMitral Valve Area by Pressure Half-Time and Deceleration Time MethodsChapter 13: Doppler Quantification of Regurgitation LesionsIntroductionSpectral Doppler Indicators of Significant RegurgitationColour Flow Doppler Imaging of Regurgitant JetsQuantitative Methods for Valvular RegurgitationChapter 14: Doppler Assessment of Ventricular Systolic FunctionIntroductionStroke Volume, Cardiac Output and Cardiac Index CalculationsdP/dtSystolic Myocardial VelocitiesMyocardial Performance IndexStrain and Strain Rate ImagingChapter 15: Assessment of Diastolic FunctionIntroductionDefinitionsAssessment of LV Diastolic FunctionAssessment of RV Diastolic FunctionAppendicesIndex
Bonita Anderson's career in Echocardiography spans more than 30 years and includes many clinical and academic roles. Bonita has mostly worked as a sonographer and educator at The Prince Charles Hospital and as a senior lecturer at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia.An Accredited Medical Sonographer, Bonita holds a Diploma in Medical Ultrasonography (Cardiac) and a Master of Applied Science (Medical Ultrasound).In 2015, she was one of the first cardiac sonographers to earn the Advanced Cardiac Sonographer credential. She has also been awarded a Fellowship of the American Society of Echocardiography (FASE) and an Associate Fellowship of the Australasian Sonographers Association.A popular international lecturer in echocardiography, Bonita is often complimented on her ability to explain complex concepts in an easy-to-understand manner. This makes her especially popular among students of echocardiography.