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Ecohydraulics
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors, xi 1 Ecohydraulics: An Introduction, 1 Ian Maddock, Atle Harby, Paul Kemp and Paul Wood 1.1 Introduction, 1 1.2 The emergence of ecohydraulics, 2 1.3 Scope and organisation of this book, 4 References, 4 Part I Methods and Approaches 2 Incorporating Hydrodynamics into Ecohydraulics: The Role of Turbulence in the Swimming Performance and Habitat Selection of Stream-Dwelling Fish, 9 Martin A. Wilkes, Ian Maddock, Fleur Visser and Michael C. Acreman 2.1 Introduction, 9 2.2 Turbulence: theory, structure and measurement, 11 2.3 The role of turbulence in the swimming performance and habitat selection of river-dwelling fish, 20 2.4 Conclusions, 24 Acknowledgements, 25 References, 25 3 Hydraulic Modelling Approaches for Ecohydraulic Studies: 3D, 2D, 1D and Non-Numerical Models, 31 Daniele Tonina and Klaus Jorde 3.1 Introduction, 31 3.2 Types of hydraulic modelling, 32 3.3 Elements of numerical hydrodynamic modelling, 33 3.4 3D modelling, 49 3.5 2D models, 55 3.6 1D models, 57 3.7 River floodplain interaction, 59 3.8 Non-numerical hydraulic modelling, 60 3.9 Case studies, 60 3.10 Conclusions, 64 Acknowledgements, 66 References, 66 4 The Habitat Modelling System CASiMiR: A Multivariate Fuzzy Approach and its Applications, 75 Markus Noack, Matthias Schneider and Silke Wieprecht 4.1 Introduction, 75 4.2 Theoretical basics of the habitat simulation tool CASiMiR, 76 4.3 Comparison of habitat modelling using the multivariate fuzzy approach and univariate preference functions, 80 4.4 Simulation of spawning habitats considering morphodynamic processes, 82 4.5 Habitat modelling on meso- to basin-scale, 85 4.6 Discussion and conclusions, 87 References, 89 5 Data-Driven Fuzzy Habitat Models: Impact of Performance Criteria and Opportunities for Ecohydraulics, 93 Ans Mouton, Bernard De Baets and Peter Goethals 5.1 Challenges for species distribution models, 93 5.2 Fuzzy modelling, 95 5.3 Case study, 100 References, 105 6 Applications of the MesoHABSIM Simulation Model, 109 Piotr Parasiewicz, Joseph N. Rogers, Paolo Vezza, Javier Gort'azar, Thomas Seager, Mark Pegg, Wies(c)(c)aw Wi'sniewolski and Claudio Comoglio 6.1 Introduction, 109 6.2 Model summary, 109 Acknowledgements, 123 References, 123 7 The Role of Geomorphology and Hydrology in Determining Spatial-Scale Units for Ecohydraulics, 125 Elisa Zavadil and Michael Stewardson 7.1 Introduction, 125 7.2 Continuum and dis-continuum views of stream networks, 126 7.3 Evolution of the geomorphic scale hierarchy, 127 7.4 Defining scale units, 131 7.5 Advancing the scale hierarchy: future research priorities, 139 References, 139 8 Developing Realistic Fish Passage Criteria: An Ecohydraulics Approach, 143 Andrew S. Vowles, Lynda R. Eakins, Adam T. Piper, James R. Kerr and Paul Kemp 8.1 Introduction, 143 8.2 Developing fish passage criteria, 144 8.3 Conclusions, 151 8.4 Future challenges, 152 References, 152 Part II Species Habitat Interactions 9 Habitat Use and Selection by Brown Trout in Streams, 159 Jan Heggenes and Jens Wollebaek 9.1 Introduction, 159 9.2 Observation methods and bias, 160 9.3 Habitat, 161 9.4 Abiotic and biotic factors, 161 9.5 Key hydraulic factors, 163 9.6 Habitat selection, 163 9.7 Temporal variability: light and flows, 166 9.8 Energetic and biomass models, 168 9.9 The hyporheic zone, 169 9.10 Spatial and temporal complexity of redd microhabitat, 169 9.11 Summary and ways forward, 170 References, 170 10 Salmonid Habitats in Riverine Winter Conditions with Ice, 177 Ari Huusko, Teppo Vehanen and Morten Stickler 10.1 Introduction, 177 10.2 Ice processes in running waters, 178 10.3 Salmonids in winter ice conditions, 182 10.4 Summary and ways forward, 186 References, 188 11 Stream Habitat Associations of the Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana boylii): The Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity, 193 Sarah Yarnell 11.1 Introduction, 193 11.2 Methods for quantifying stream habitat, 194 11.3 Observed relationships between R. boylii and stream habitat, 198 11.4 Discussion, 204 References, 209 12 Testing the Relationship Between Surface Flow Types and Benthic Macroinvertebrates, 213 Graham Hill, Ian Maddock and Melanie Bickerton 12.1 Background, 213 12.2 Ecohydraulic relationships between habitat and biota, 213 12.3 Case study, 216 12.4 Discussion, 223 12.5 Wider implications, 226 12.6 Conclusion, 227 References, 227 13 The Impact of Altered Flow Regime on Periphyton, 229 Natas a Smolar-Z vanut and Aleksandra Krivograd Klemenc ic 13.1 Introduction, 229 13.2 Modified flow regimes, 230 13.3 The impact of altered flow regime on periphyton, 231 13.4 Case studies from Slovenia, 236 13.5 Conclusions, 240 References, 240 14 Ecohydraulics and Aquatic Macrophytes: Assessing the Relationship in River Floodplains, 245 Georg A. Janauer, Udo Schmidt-Mumm and Walter Reckendorfer 14.1 Introduction, 245 14.2 Macrophytes, 246 14.3 Life forms of macrophytes in running waters, 248 14.4 Application of ecohydraulics for management: a case study on the Danube River and its floodplain, 249 14.5 Conclusion, 255 Acknowledgements, 255 Appendix 14.A: Abbreviations used in Figure 14.5, including full plant names and authorities, 255 References, 256 15 Multi-Scale Macrophyte Responses to Hydrodynamic Stress and Disturbances: Adaptive Strategies and Biodiversity Patterns, 261 Sara Puijalon and Gudrun Bornette 15.1 Introduction, 261 15.2 Individual and patch-scale response to hydrodynamic stress and disturbances, 262 15.3 Community responses to temporary peaks of flow and current velocity, 266 15.4 Macrophyte abundance, biodiversity and succession, 268 15.5 Conclusion, 269 References, 270 Part III Management Application Case Studies 16 Application of Real-Time Management for Environmental Flow Regimes, 277 Thomas B. Hardy and Thomas A. Shaw 16.1 Introduction, 277 16.2 Real-time management, 278 16.3 The setting, 278 16.4 The context and challenges with present water allocation strategies, 281 16.5 The issues concerning the implementation of environmental flow regimes, 282 16.6 Underlying science for environmental flows in the Klamath River, 283 16.7 The Water Resource Integrated Modelling System for The Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 285 16.8 The solution real-time management, 285 16.9 Example RTM implementation, 287 16.10 RTM performance, 287 16.11 Discussion, 290 16.12 Conclusions, 290 Acknowledgements, 291 References, 291 17 Hydraulic Modelling of Floodplain Vegetation in Korea: Development and Applications, 293 Hyoseop Woo and Sung-Uk Choi 17.1 Introduction, 293 17.2 Modelling of vegetated flows, 294 17.3 Floodplain vegetation modelling: From white rivers to green rivers, 300 17.4 Conclusions, 306 References, 306 18 A Historical Perspective on Downstream Passage at Hydroelectric Plants in Swedish Rivers, 309 Olle Calles, Peter Rivinoja and Larry Greenberg 18.1 Introduction, 309 18.2 Historical review of downstream bypass problems in Sweden, 310 18.3 Rehabilitating downstream passage in Swedish Rivers today, 312 18.4 Concluding remarks, 319 References, 320 19 Rapid Flow Fluctuations and Impacts on Fish and the Aquatic Ecosystem, 323 Atle Harby and Markus Noack 19.1 Introduction, 323 19.2 Rapid flow fluctuations, 325 19.3 Methods to study rapid flow fluctuations and their impact, 325 19.4 Results, 326 19.5 Mitigation, 329 19.6 Discussion and future work, 331 Acknowledgements, 333 References, 334 20 Ecohydraulic Design of Riffle-Pool Relief and Morphological Unit Geometry in Support of Regulated Gravel-Bed River Rehabilitation, 337 Gregory B. Pasternack and Rocko A. Brown 20.1 Introduction, 337 20.2 Experimental design, 338 20.3 Results, 347 20.4 Discussion and conclusions, 351 Acknowledgements, 353 References, 353 21 Ecohydraulics for River Management: Can Mesoscale Lotic Macroinvertebrate Data Inform Macroscale Ecosystem Assessment?, 357 Jessica M. Orlofske, Wendy A. Monk and Donald J. Baird 21.1 Introduction, 357 21.2 Lotic macroinvertebrates in a management context, 358 21.3 Patterns in lotic macroinvertebrate response to hydraulic variables, 359 21.4 Linking ecohydraulics and lotic macroinvertebrate traits, 365 21.5 Trait variation among lotic macroinvertebrates in LIFE flow groups, 366 21.6 Upscaling from ecohydraulics to management, 370 21.7 Conclusions, 371 References, 371 22 Estuarine Wetland Ecohydraulics and Migratory Shorebird Habitat Restoration, 375 Jos'e F. Rodr'(c)[yen]guez and Alice Howe 22.1 Introduction, 375 22.2 Area E of Kooragang Island, 377 22.3 Ecohydraulic and ecogeomorphic characterisation, 378 22.4 Modifying vegetation distribution by hydraulic manipulation, 382 22.5 Discussion, 388 22.6 Conclusions and recommendations, 390 References, 392 23 Ecohydraulics at the Landscape Scale: Applying the Concept of Temporal Landscape Continuity in River Restoration Using Cyclic Floodplain Rejuvenation, 395 Gertjan W. Geerling, Harm Duel, Anthonie D. Buijse and Antonius J.M. Smits 23.1 Introduction, 395 23.2 The inspiration: landscape dynamics of meandering rivers, 397 23.3 The concept: temporal continuity and discontinuity of landscapes along regulated rivers, 399 23.4 Application: floodplain restoration in a heavily regulated river, 401 23.5 The strategy in regulated rivers: cyclic floodplain rejuvenation (CFR), 403 23.6 General conclusions, 405 References, 405 24 Embodying Interactions Between Riparian Vegetation and Fluvial Hydraulic Processes Within a Dynamic Floodplain Model: Concepts and Applications, 407 Gregory Egger, Emilio Politti, Virginia Gar'ofano-G'omez, Bernadette Blamauer, Teresa Ferreira, Rui Rivaes, Rohan Benjankar and Helmut Habersack 24.1 Introduction, 407 24.2 Physical habitat and its effects on floodplain vegetation, 408 24.3 Succession phases and their environmental context, 410 24.4 Response of floodplain vegetation to fluvial processes, 414 24.5 Linking fluvial processes and vegetation: the disturbance regime approach as the backbone for the dynamic model, 415 24.6 Model applications, 417 24.7 Conclusion, 423 Acknowledgements, 424 References, 424 Part IV Conclusion 25 Research Needs, Challenges and the Future of Ecohydraulics Research, 431 Ian Maddock, Atle Harby, Paul Kemp and Paul Wood 25.1 Introduction, 431 25.2 Research needs and future challenges, 432 References, 435 Index, 437

About the Author

EDITORS IAN MADDOCK, Institute of Science and the Environment, University of Worcester, UK ATLE HARBY, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway PAUL KEMP, International Centre for Ecohydraulics Research, University of Southampton, UK PAUL WOOD, Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

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