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Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms
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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xix Acknowledgments xxiii Preface xxv 1 Mushrooms and Human Civilization 1 Behari Lal Dhar 1.1 Domestication of Mushrooms 2 References 3 2 Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World 5 Daniel J. Royse, Johan Baars and Qi Tan 2.1 Lentinula edodes 6 2.2 Pleurotus spp. 8 2.3 Auricularia spp. 10 2.4 Agaricus bisporus 10 2.5 Flammulina velutipes 11 2.6 Outlook 11 References 12 3 Mushrooms: Biology and Life Cycle 15 Eustaquio Souza Dias and Manuela Rocha de Brito 3.1 Life Cycle of Fungi 15 3.2 The Subkingdom Dykaria 17 3.3 Homothallism, Heterothallism, and Amphithallism 18 3.4 Heterothallism 19 3.5 Homothallism 19 3.6 Amphithallism 20 3.7 Mating Type Genes 21 3.8 Agaricus brasiliensis (Syn = A. subrufescens or A. blazei): An Intriguing Example of Amphithallism 22 3.9 Life Cycle of Uncultivated Mushrooms 24 3.10 The Truffles 25 3.11 Morels 25 3.12 The Chanterelles 26 3.13 The Matsutake 27 3.14 Porcini 27 3.15 Decreased Production of Mycorrhizal Mushrooms in the Northern Hemisphere 28 3.16 Fitness of Filamentous Fungi 28 3.17 Final Considerations 30 References 31 4 Genetic Aspects and Strategies for Obtaining Hybrids 35 Manjit Singh and Shwet Kamal 4.1 Agaricus bisporus 36 4.2 Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species) 60 4.3 Conclusion 72 References 73 5 Spawn Production 89 Kasper Moreaux 5.1 Our Spawn Industry Today 89 5.2 Basics 90 5.3 Spawn Production Techniques 92 5.4 Strain Selection 101 5.5 Strain Preservation and Degeneration 102 5.6 Production of Mother Cultures and Mother Spawn 107 5.7 Hygiene 114 5.8 Sterilization, Disinfection, and Filtration 116 5.9 Substrate Composition 122 5.10 Incubation 123 5.11 Conservation and Transport 127 References 128 6 Compost as a Food Base for Agaricus bisporus 129 Jos Buth 6.1 The Place of Agaricus Strains in Nature 129 6.2 Compost Process Phase I 130 6.3 Preparing Raw Materials 132 6.4 Phase II 138 6.5 Phase III 144 References 147 7 Casing Materials and Techniques in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation 149 A. Pardo ]Gimenez, J.E. Pardo and Diego C. Zied 7.1 General Aspects of Casing and Fruiting 149 7.2 Casing Materials 153 7.3 Casing Related Techniques 158 References 163 8 The Bag or Block System of Agaricus Mushroom Growing 175 Raymond Samp 8.1 Overview of the System 175 8.2 Bags and Blocks in Use 176 8.3 Practical Use of the System - Phase I and Phase II 178 8.4 Practical Use of the System - Spawning and Phase III 179 8.5 Practical Use of the System - Casing through Cropping 186 References 195 9 The Mushroom Industry in the Netherlands 197 Jos Buth References 209 10 New Technology in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation 211 Arcadio Gomez 10.1 Introduction 211 10.2 Stages and Operations of the Production System 211 10.3 Conclusion 220 References 220 11 Insect, Mite, and Nematode Pests of Commercial Mushroom Production 221 Danny Lee Rinker 11.1 Fly Pests 221 11.2 Mite Pests 230 11.3 Nematode Pests 231 References 235 12 Mushroom Diseases and Control 239 Francisco J. Gea and Maria J. Navarro 12.1 Introduction 239 12.2 Fungal Diseases 239 12.3 Trichoderma Diseases 245 12.4 Bacterial Diseases 253 12.5 Viral Diseases 256 Further Reading 257 13 Harvesting and Processing of Mushrooms 261 Juan Valverde 13.1 Introduction 261 13.2 Manual Harvesting 262 13.3 Mechanical Harvesting 265 13.4 Automatic Harvesting Systems 265 13.5 Washing Mushrooms 267 13.6 Canning Mushrooms 268 13.7 Conclusions 268 References 269 14 Mushroom Farm Design and Technology of Cultivation 271 Behari Lal Dhar 14.1 Selection of Site and Pre-Requisites 272 14.2 Components of a Mushroom Farm 273 14.3 Mushroom Cultivation Technology 286 14.4 Environmental Crop Management 293 14.5 Cultivated Edible Specialty Mushrooms 295 References 307 15 Cultivation of Mushrooms in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 309 Katsuji Yamanaka 15.1 Introduction 309 15.2 Characteristics of Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 310 15.3 Cultivation Methods 319 15.4 Diseases in Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 333 15.5 Pests in Mushroom Cultivation in Plastic Bottles and Small Bags 337 References 338 16 Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus 339 Alma E. Rodriguez Estrada and John Pecchia 16.1 Pleurotus Species as Edible Fungi 339 16.2 Pleurotus spp. as Recyclers 339 16.3 Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus 342 References 356 17 Characteristics, Production, and Marketing of the Sun Mushroom: The New Medicinal Cultivated Mushroom 361 Diego Cunha Zied, Jose Emilio Pardo Gonzalez, Eustaquio Souza Dias and Arturo Pardo Gimenez 17.1 Introduction 361 17.2 Morphological Characteristics 362 17.3 Spawn Production 363 17.4 Compost (Phase I and II) 364 17.5 Spawning and Mycelium Run 368 17.6 Casing Layer 368 17.7 Facilities used in the Production Process 370 17.8 Pinning and Harvest 371 17.9 Post-Harvest and Marketing 373 17.10 Medicinal and Chemical Characteristics of Mushrooms 375 17.11 Diseases and Pests 378 17.12 Spent Mushroom Substrate (SMS) 382 Acknowledgments 382 References 382 18 Cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum 385 Xuan ]Wei Zhou 18.1 Introduction 385 18.2 Growing Conditions of Lingzhi 386 18.3 Cultivating Patterns 388 18.4 Production of the Substrate 392 18.5 Preparation of Spawns and Inoculation 394 18.6 Facilities 395 18.7 Genetic Breeding 397 18.8 Duration, Number of Flushes 400 18.9 Diseases and Pests in the Cultivation of Lingzhi 403 18.10 Medicinal Values 405 Acknowledgments 407 References 407 19 Naturally Occurring Strains of Edible Mushrooms: A Source to Improve the Mushroom Industry 415 Edgardo Alberto 19.1 Edible Species and Their Cultivation 415 19.2 Steps for the Domestication of Naturally Occurring Species 416 19.3 Finding New Species for the Mushroom Production Industry: A Look Back at the Last Few Years 418 19.4 Conclusions 423 References 423 20 Spent Mushroom Substrate Uses 427 Danny Lee Rinker 20.1 Introduction 427 20.2 Characteristics of Spent Substrate 428 20.3 Bioremediation 429 20.4 Crop Production 431 20.5 Reuse in the Cultivation of Mushrooms 432 20.6 Food for Animals and Fish 433 20.7 Pest Management 433 20.8 Other Varied Uses 434 20.9 Conclusion 435 References 435 21 Chemical, Nutritional, and Bioactive Potential of Mushrooms 455 Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira, Angela Fernandes and Sandrina A. Heleno 21.1 Brief Introduction 455 21.2 Chemical Composition and Nutritional Properties 455 21.3 Bioactive Properties 476 21.4 Conclusions 493 References 493 22 Medicinal Properties and Clinical Effects of Medicinal Mushrooms 503 Solomon P. Wasser 22.1 Introduction 503 22.2 Current Perspectives and Advances 505 22.3 Medicinal Mushroom Drugs 507 22.4 Medicinal Mushroom Dietary Supplements 508 22.5 Evidences, Challenges, and Unsolved Problems 511 22.6 Medicinal Mushroom Natural Products as an Unclaimed Source for Drug Discovery 515 22.7 Unsolved Problems in the Study of Structural Characteristics, Isolation Process, Receptor-Mediated Mechanism and Antitumor Activity of MM -Glucans 517 22.8 Medicinal Mushroom Clinical Studies 518 22.9 Conclusions 533 References 534 Index 541

About the Author

Edited by Professor Dr Diego Cunha Zied of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Brazil and Researcher Dr Arturo Pardo-Gimenez of Centro de Investigacion, Experimentacion y Servicios del Champinon (CIES), Spain.

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