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Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering
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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii PART 1 EMC THEORY 1 1. Electromagnetic Compatibility 3 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Noise and Interference 3 1.3 Designing for Electromagnetic Compatibility 4 1.4 Engineering Documentation and EMC 6 1.5 United States' EMC Regulations 6 1.6 Canadian EMC Requirements 19 1.7 European Union's EMC Requirements 20 1.8 International Harmonization 26 1.9 Military Standards 27 1.10 Avionics 28 1.11 The Regulatory Process 30 1.12 Typical Noise Path 30 1.13 Methods of Noise Coupling 31 1.14 Miscellaneous Noise Sources 33 1.15 Use of Network Theory 36 Summary 38 Problems 39 References 41 Further Reading 42 2. Cabling 44 2.1 Capacitive Coupling 45 2.2 Effect of Shield on Capacitive Coupling 48 2.3 Inductive Coupling 52 2.4 Mutual Inductance Calculations 54 2.5 Effect of Shield on Magnetic Coupling 56 2.6 Shielding to Prevent Magnetic Radiation 64 2.7 Shielding a Receptor Against Magnetic Fields 67 2.8 Common Impedance Shield Coupling 69 2.9 Experimental Data 70 2.10 Example of Selective Shielding 74 2.11 Shield Transfer Impedance 75 2.12 Coaxial Cable Versus Twisted Pair 75 2.13 Braided Shields 79 2.14 Spiral Shields 81 2.15 Shield Terminations 84 2.16 Ribbon Cables 94 2.17 Electrically Long Cables 96 Summary 96 Problems 98 References 103 Further Reading 104 3. Grounding 106 3.1 AC Power Distribution and Safety Grounds 107 3.2 Signal Grounds 120 3.3 Equipment/System Grounding 132 3.4 Ground Loops 142 3.5 Low-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke 147 3.6 High-Frequency Analysis of Common-Mode Choke 152 3.7 Single Ground Reference for a Circuit 154 Summary 155 Problems 156 References 157 Further Reading 157 4. Balancing and Filtering 158 4.1 Balancing 158 4.2 Filtering 174 4.3 Power Supply Decoupling 178 4.4 Driving Capacitive Loads 186 4.5 System Bandwidth 188 4.6 Modulation and Coding 190 Summary 190 Problems 191 References 192 Further Reading 193 5. Passive Components 194 5.1 Capacitors 194 5.2 Inductors 203 5.3 Transformers 204 5.4 Resistors 206 5.5 Conductors 208 5.6 Transmission Lines 215 5.7 Ferrites 225 Summary 233 Problems 234 References 237 Further Reading 237 6. Shielding 238 6.1 Near Fields and Far Fields 238 6.2 Characteristic and Wave Impedances 241 6.3 Shielding Effectiveness 243 6.4 Absorption Loss 245 6.5 Reflection Loss 249 6.6 Composite Absorption and Reflection Loss 257 6.7 Summary of Shielding Equations 260 6.8 Shielding with Magnetic Materials 260 6.9 Experimental Data 265 6.10 Apertures 267 6.11 Waveguide Below Cutoff 280 6.12 Conductive Gaskets 282 6.13 The ``IDEAL'' Shield 287 6.14 Conductive Windows 288 6.15 Conductive Coatings 289 6.16 Internal Shields 293 6.17 Cavity Resonance 295 6.18 Grounding of Shields 296 Summary 296 Problems 297 References 299 Further Reading 300 7. Contact Protection 302 7.1 Glow Discharges 302 7.2 Metal-Vapor or Arc Discharges 303 7.3 AC Versus DC Circuits 305 7.4 Contact Material 306 7.5 Contact Rating 306 7.6 Loads with High Inrush Currents 307 7.7 Inductive Loads 308 7.8 Contact Protection Fundamentals 310 7.9 Transient Suppression for Inductive Loads 314 7.10 Contact Protection Networks for Inductive Loads 318 7.11 Inductive Loads Controlled by a Transistor Switch 322 7.12 Resistive Load Contact Protection 323 7.13 Contact Protection Selection Guide 323 7.14 Examples 324 Summary 325 Problems 326 References 327 Further Reading 327 8. Intrinsic Noise Sources 328 8.1 Thermal Noise 328 8.2 Characteristics of Thermal Noise 332 8.3 Equivalent Noise Bandwidth 334 8.4 Shot Noise 337 8.5 Contact Noise 338 8.6 Popcorn Noise 339 8.7 Addition of Noise Voltages 340 8.8 Measuring Random Noise 341 Summary 342 Problems 343 References 345 Further Reading 345 9. Active Device Noise 346 9.1 Noise Factor 346 9.2 Measurement of Noise Factor 349 9.3 Calculating S/N Ratio and Input Noise Voltage from Noise Factor 351 9.4 Noise Voltage and Current Model 353 9.5 Measurment of Vn and In 355 9.6 Calculating Noise Factor and S/N Ratio from Vn-In 356 9.7 Optimum Source Resistance 357 9.8 Noise Factor of Cascaded Stages 360 9.9 Noise Temperature 362 9.10 Bipolar Transistor Noise 364 9.11 Field-Effect Transistor Noise 368 9.12 Noise in Operational Amplifiers 370 Summary 375 Problems 376 References 377 Further Reading 378 10. Digital Circuit Grounding 379 10.1 Frequency Versus Time Domain 380 10.2 Analog Versus Digital Circuits 380 10.3 Digital Logic Noise 380 10.4 Internal Noise Sources 381 10.5 Digital Circuit Ground Noise 384 10.6 Ground Plane Current Distribution and Impedance 391 10.7 Digital Logic Current Flow 412 Summary 419 Problems 420 References 421 Further Reading 422 PART 2 EMC APPLICATIONS 423 11. Digital Circuit Power Distribution 425 11.1 Power Supply Decoupling 425 11.2 Transient Power Supply Currents 426 11.3 Decoupling Capacitors 431 11.4 Effective Decoupling Strategies 436 11.5 The Effect of Decoupling on Radiated Emissions 454 11.6 Decoupling Capacitor Type and Value 456 11.7 Decoupling Capacitor Placement and Mounting 457 11.8 Bulk Decoupling Capacitors 459 11.9 Power Entry Filters 460 Summary 461 Problems 461 References 463 Further Reading 463 12. Digital Circuit Radiation 464 12.1 Differential-Mode Radiation 465 12.2 Controlling Differential-Mode Radiation 471 12.3 Common-Mode Radiation 477 12.4 Controlling Common-Mode Radiation 480 Summary 488 Problems 489 References 490 Further Reading 491 13. Conducted Emissions 492 13.1 Power Line Impedance 492 13.2 Switched-Mode Power Supplies 495 13.3 Power-Line Filters 511 13.4 Primary-to-Secondary Common-Mode Coupling 523 13.5 Frequency Dithering 524 13.6 Power Supply Instability 524 13.7 Magnetic Field Emissions 525 13.8 Variable Speed Motor Drives 528 13.9 Harmonic Suppression 536 Summary 541 Problems 542 References 544 Further Reading 544 14. RF and Transient Immunity 545 14.1 Performance Criteria 545 14.2 RF Immunity 546 14.3 Transient Immunity 557 14.4 Power Line Disturbances 572 Summary 575 Problems 576 References 578 Further Reading 579 15. Electrostatic Discharge 580 15.1 Static Generation 580 15.2 Human Body Model 587 15.3 Static Discharge 589 15.4 ESD Protection in Equipment Design 592 15.5 Preventing ESD Entry 594 15.6 Hardening Sensitive Circuits 608 15.7 ESD Grounding 608 15.8 Nongrounded Products 609 15.9 Field-Induced Upset 610 15.10 Transient Hardened Software Design 612 15.11 Time Windows 617 Summary 617 Problems 619 References 620 Further Reading 621 16. PCB Layout and Stackup 622 16.1 General PCB Layout Considerations 622 16.2 PCB-to-Chassis Ground Connection 625 16.3 Return Path Discontinuities 626 16.4 PCB Layer Stackup 635 Summary 655 Problems 657 References 658 Further Reading 658 17. Mixed-Signal PCB Layout 660 17.1 Split Ground Planes 660 17.2 Microstrip Ground Plane Current Distribution 662 17.3 Analog and Digital Ground Pins 665 17.4 When Should Split Ground Planes Be Used? 668 17.5 Mixed Signal ICs 669 17.6 High-Resolution A/D and D/A Converters 671 17.7 A/D and D/A Converter Support Circuitry 676 17.8 Vertical Isolation 679 17.9 Mixed-Signal Power Distribution 681 17.10 The IPC Problem 684 Summary 685 Problems 686 References 687 Further Reading 687 18. Precompliance EMC Measurements 688 18.1 Test Environment 689 18.2 Antennas Versus Probes 689 18.3 Common-Mode Currents on Cables 690 18.4 Near Field Measurements 694 18.5 Noise Voltage Measurements 697 18.6 Conducted Emission Testing 700 18.7 Spectrum Analyzers 707 18.8 EMC Crash Cart 711 18.9 One-Meter Radiated Emission Measurements 713 18.10 Precompliance Immunity Testing 717 18.11 Precompliance Power Quality Tests 723 18.12 Margin 726 Summary 728 Problems 729 References 730 Further Reading 731 APPENDIX 733 A. The Decibel 733 A.1 Properties of Logarithms 733 A.2 Using the Decibel for Other than Power Measurements 734 A.3 Power Loss or Negative Power Gain 736 A.4 Absolute Power Level 736 A.5 Summing Powers Expressed in Decibels 738 B. The Ten Best Ways to Maximize the Emission from Your Product 740 C. Multiple Reflections of Magnetic Fields in Thin Shields 743 D. Dipoles for Dummies 746 D.1 Basic Dipoles for Dummies 746 D.2 Intermediate Dipoles for Dummies 751 D.3 Advanced Dipoles for Dummies 756 Summary 763 Further Reading 764 E. Partial Inductance 765 E.1 Inductance 765 E.2 Loop Inductance 767 E.3 Partial Inductance 770 E.4 Ground Plane Inductance Measurement Test Setup 780 E.5 Inductance Notation 785 Summary 788 References 788 Further Reading 789 F. Answers to Problems 790 Index 825

About the Author

Henry W. Ott is President and Principal Consultant of Henry Ott Consultants, an EMC/ESD training and consulting organization located in Livingston, New Jersey. Mr. Ott is considered by many to be the nation's leading EMC educator.

Reviews

"This is an outstanding book. At 872 pages thick, it is a valuable follow-up to Ott's earlier books, Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems (first edition, 1975; second edition, 1987) . . . EMC will remain with us in the foreseeable future, and we need books like this one." (The Radio Science Bulletin, 1 June 2011)

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